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Chapter 12

Chapter 12: Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia

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Psychology 2042A/B
Alvin Segal

Page 1 of 13 Chapter 12 Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia 1930 childhood schizophrenia termed Leo Kanner early infantile autism Hans AspergersAutism and aspergers nonpsychotic disorders that appear early in life and have pervasive affects on development A AUTISTIC DISORDER AUTISMDSM Classification Total of 6 or more items from 123 with at least 2 from 1 and one each from 2 and 3 1 Qualitative impairment in social interactionsa Marked impairment in nonverbal behaviors ex Eye to eye glaze facial impressions gestures social interactionb Failure to develop relationships c Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment interest etcd Lack of socialemotional reciprocity2 Qualitative impairment in communication a Delay in spoken language b Impairment to sustaininitiate conversation c Stereotyped and repetitive use of languaged Lack of varied make believe playimitative play 3 Restricted repetitive patters of behaviorsa Preoccupation thats abnormal in intensity or focusb Inflexible adherence to specific nonfunctional routines c Repetitive motor mannerismsd Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects Delays or abnormal functioning in at least one of the following areas with onset prior to age 3 years 1 social interaction 2 language 3 symbolic or imaginative play The disturbance is not better accounted for by Retts disorder or Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Social InteractionShow few symptoms at 6 months subtle differences before 12 months More likely to show aversion to being touched by another person Empty gazeAvoid eye contactLittle interest in being heldPage 2 of 13Fail to respond to others with emotional expressions and positive affect Defects in Joint attention interactionso Develop after 6 monthso Involve gestures such as pointing and eye contact that center the child and caregivers attention on an object to share an experienceYoung children with autism imitate people less Miss out on mutual connection 2 year olds with autism were rated less secure than non clinical comparison groups Impairment in recognizing faces o Typically child recognizes moms facial featuresDelayedAtypical social behaviors Social stimuli Join attention EmotionImitation Face Processing Communication Disturbed communication both verbal and non verbal30 children with autism never develop spoken language o Those who do usually delayed and abnormal Echolalia person echoes back what another has said Seen in language disorders schizophrenia and blindness Pronoun Reversal more common in autism than others may persist into adulthoodChild may refer to others as I or me and to self as she he them or youSome children function at a higher level Communicate better when given prompts tell stories and reado Hyperlexia little understood feature where single word reading is extraordinary but comprehension of what is read isnt Can pronounce cant understand Restricted Repetitive Stereotyped Behavior and Interests RRSBS Two Categories1 Lower level repetitive sensorimotor behaviorsCommon to younger children with lower intelligence2 Higher level insistence on sameness Common in older children Maybe excessive arousal or anxiety plays a role
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