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Chapter 5

Chapter 5- Children with Learning Disabilities

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Western University
Psychology 2043A/B
Esther Goldberg

Chapter 5 Children with Learning DisabilitiesDefinitions of Learning Disabilitiesy Lack of clear definitiony Lack of understanding results partly from the varied and contradictory manifestations of learning disabilities themselvesy Additional points of confusion include the fields evolution its accelerated growth and its interdisciplinary natureHISTORICAL NOTES thy At the opening of the 20 century when compulsory school laws propelled all children into education learning disabilities began to be seen y Early research focused on clinical investigation rather than practical application in the schools and focused primarily on 3 areas of disorder spoken language written language and motor and perceptual problemsy Kausmeaul first described word blindnessy Eye surgeon Hinshelwood investigated word blindness word deafness and mind blindnessproblems now called learning disabledy Early 20s emphasis on a brain theory and its relationship to abrasions in behavioury Orton noted that children with learning problems displayed mixed laterality and suggested that the failure of one hemisphere was dominant causeo Coined term strephosymoblia for individuals who saw mixed symbols when they tried to ready 1963 term learning disabilities was being used for student who experienced continual school failure yet did not fit into the traditional categories of exceptionalityy First used by Samuel Kirk as a standard description for children of normal intelligence with learning problemsy Kirk had 4 major effects o It isolated the general characteristics of the population to be subsumed under the label of learning disabilitieso Stimulated growth of ACLD association for children with learning disabilities renamed the LDA learning disabilities association in 1989forum for parents powerful lobby group o Cemented his leading role in the new field of LD o The creation of the new term served as a catalyst to generate new interest in the field Samuel Kirks definitionA learning disability refers to a retardation disorder or delayed development in one or more of the processes of speech language reading writing arithmetic or other school subject resulting from a psychological handicap caused by a possible cerebral dysfunction andor emotional or behavioral disturbances It is not the result of mental retardation sensory deprivation or cultural and instructional factors
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