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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes This is for Psych 2060, taken online, for the Muchinsky 9th Ed. textbook. These are very detailed and easy to understand notes on Chapter 1 that I made myself. Headings and bullets make it easy to read, and I assure you there is enough

Course Code
PSYCH 2060
Hayden Woodley

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Chapter 1 – The Historical Background of I/O Psychology
-psychology: the scientific study of thinking and behaviour
- some psychology is biological in nature while others are more social in
- APA – American Psychological Association
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
-Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP):
professional organization that represents I/O psychologists in the US, it
is Division 14 of the APA
- many more women entering field of I/O psychology
- practice and science of the discipline have been influenced by the
prevailing political, cultural, and economic forces operating at the time
- 4% of psychologists work in I/O area
- I/O psychology strives to enhance the welfare of the institution and the
-I/O psychology: an area of scientific study and professional practice
that addresses psychological concepts and principles in the work world
- 2 sides of I/O psychology
oscientific inquiry
advancing knowledge about people at work
form results of studies into meaningful patterns that can
explain behaviour
oprofessional practice
application of knowledge to solve real world problems
can use research to hire better employees, reduce
absenteeism, improve communication, increase job
satisfaction, etc
-scientist-practitioner model: framework for education in an
academic discipline based on understanding the scientific principles
and findings evidenced in the discipline and how they provide the basis
of the professional practice
- I/O psychologists are split between universities, consulting firms,
industry, and government, but most of them are at universities and
consulting firms
- as of 2006, average income was $80 000 for MS graduates and $103
000 for Ph.D. graduates in I/O psychology
Fields of I/O Psychology
- selection and placement
oidentify jobs that are most compatible with an individual’s skills
and interests
odetermine to what degree tests can predict job performance
- training and development

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ostudy employee skills that need to be enhanced to improve job
- performance appraisal
oidentify criteria or standards for determining how well employees
are performing their jobs
- organization development
oanalyze the structure of an organization to maximize the
satisfaction and effectiveness of individuals, work groups, and
- quality of worklife
oconcerned with factors that contribute to a healthy and
productive workforce
oe.g. making a job more meaningful or satisfying
ohigh-quality worklife = greater productivity
- ergonomics
oconcerned with designing tools, equipment, and machines that
are compatible with human skill
Licensing of Psychologists
-licensure: the process by which a professional practice is regulated by
law to ensure quality standards are met to protect the public
The History of I/O Psychology – The Early Years (1900-1916)
- I/O psychology is a merging of 2 forces pragmatic nature of some
basic psychological research and the desire of industrial engineers to
improve efficiency
- W.L. Bryan is a precursor of I/O psychology
- emphasized examining real skills as a base upon which to develop
scientific psychology
- late 19th century America experience rapid social change
- society wanted to improve quality of life and looked to science for
practical solutions
- industrial psychology became an official area of psychology in 1910
- primary emphasis of early work in I/O psychology was on the economic
gains that could be accrued by applying the ideas and methods of
psychology to business and industry problems
- Walter Dill Scott
oincreased public awareness and credibility of industrial
oapplied psychology to advertising
ohelped with application of personnel procedures for army in WW1
- Frederick W. Taylor
orealized the value of redesigning the work situation to achieve
higher output for company and a higher wage for the worker
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