Attitude: a positive, negative, or mixed reaction to a person, object or idea. Attitude scale: a multiple-item questionnaire designed to measure a person"s attitude toward some object. Bogus pipeline: a phony lie-detector device that is sometimes used to get respondents to give truthful answers to sensitive questions. Facial electromyography (emg): an electronic instrument that records facial muscle activity associated with emotions and attitudes. Implicit attitude: an attitude, such as prejudice, that one is not aware of having. Implicit association test (iat): a covert measure of unconscious attitudes derived from the speed at which people respond to pairings of concepts such as black or white with good or bad. Evaluative conditioning: the process by which we form an attitude toward a neutral stimulus because of its association with a positive or negative person, place, or thing. Theory of planned behaviour: the theory that attitudes toward a specific behaviour combine with subjective norms and perceived control to influence a person"s actions.