Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Apple Community, Gender Bender, Body Image

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Psych 2075 Human Sexuality
Chapter 13: Gender and Sexuality
GENDER ROLES AND STEREOTYPES
Gender Role – a set of norms, or culturally prescribed expectations that define how
people of a certain gender should behave
Stereotype – a certain set of beliefs about a group of people that distinguishes those from
others and is applied to ALL members of that group
Heterosexuality very important in gender roles
oI.e., “Feminine” women are expected to be sexually attractive to men and in turn
to be attracted to them. Women who violate any part of this role - for example,
lesbians because they are not attracted to men – are viewed as violators of gender
roles and are considered masculine
Gender Scheme Theory
Gender Schema – set of ideas (about behaviors, personality, appearance, etc.) that we
associate with males and females
Influences how we process information
Often leads to distort or fail to remember information that is stereotype inconsistent
oDifficult to change people’s stereotyped notions because we leave out information
that contradicts the stereotypes
Gender roles and the situation in which we are in affect how likely we process
information in terms of gender schema
Study: traditionally masculine men who were exposed to a nonviolent erotic film were
more sexist towards female confederate than did non-traditional men or men who saw a
control film
The Traditional Sexual Script
Scripts – how people are supposed to behave in certain situations
Traditional Sexual Script – heterosexual script; specifies how men and women are
supposed to behave in (heterosexual) sexual situations
Some aspects:
oMen are “oversexed” while women are “undersexed”
Men seen having strong sexual needs and highly motivated to engage in
sexual activity at any opportunity
Women seen as sexually reluctant, slow to arouse, and interested in sex
only in the context of love and commitment
oHigh sexual experience enhances men’s but decreases women’s status
Men: macho, stud
Women: slut, whore
oMen are “sexperts” and tend to take responsibility for both their own and
their female partner’s sexual pleasure and orgasm
Women afraid to share sexual preferences with their partner because of
fear of evidence of many sexual partners
oMen are supposed to be the initiators in sexual situations
oTo avoid being judged by being too sexually available, women are expected
to be sexual gatekeepers and place limits on sex
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I.e., even when they are interested in having sex with someone, they are
supposed to offer resistance at first to their partner’s sexual advances
Study: men initiated sex more often than women do in both mixed-sex dating and long-
term relationships (consistent)
oStudy also showed that women initiated sex more than once a week (non
consistent with TSS)
oMen and women equally likely to accept or refuse initiation
oWhen one partner is reluctant to engage in sex, men and women use the same
strategies to try to change their partner’s mind – i.e., touching, stroking the
partner
Some aspects of TSS are true and others are not
oI.e., male role to initiate sex is true
oI.e., women do initiate sexual activity – although less frequently than men – but
still do (not consistent with TSS)
oWomen are no more reluctant to engage in sex than men are
Socialization
Socialization – ways in which society conveys to the individual its norms or expectations
for his/her behavior
oOccurs especially in childhood when children are taught to behave as they will be
expected in adulthood
Several processes of socialization:
oChildren rewarded for behavior that is appropriate for their gender or punished
for behavior that is not appropriate to their gender
oModeling – i.e., imitating parents, teachers, men/women on TV
oSimply telling children what is expected of boys/men and girls/women may be
enough for role learning
oSelf-Socialization: operates in two ways:
The more children identify with a certain gender, the more they are
motivated to incorporate attributes associated with that gender into their
self-concept
Seeing themselves as matching the stereotypes for their own gender
strengthens children’s identity
Research shows that parents treat girls and boys similarly in many ways, with the
exception that parents encourage gender-typed activities
Peer groups can have an impact on socialization
oStudy: Children read stories about boys and girls engaging in traditionally
masculine, traditionally feminine or a combination of both behaviors
oFound that boys preferred to be friends with exclusively masculine boy – girls
preferred feminine girls
Media – still shows female and males in stereotyped roles
oIn many advertisements, the “voice of authority” – voice over – is male in 71% of
ads
Gender Roles and Ethnicity
British and French backgrounds make up the largest ethnic groups in Canada
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Changing immigration patterns since the 1980s have increased the ethnocultural diversity
of Canada and have introduced a wide range of gender roles
Intersectionality – an approach that considers the meaning and consequences of multiple
categories of identity, difference, and disadvantage
Not only looking at gender in isolation, but consider the effects of gender, race,
social class, and sexual orientation simultaneously
I.e., when talking about women – talking about a group that differs by ethnicity,
social class, sexual orientation, etc.
From this, it becomes clear that some groups experience multiple disadvantages
Acculturation – incorporating the beliefs and customs of a new culture
I.e., some immigrant parents may encourage their daughters to obtain professional
degrees and take up careers even though women in their culture traditionally did
not work outside the home
Study: Examined sexuality within six Canadian Ethnocultural communities
Found that men and women in these communities are seen as having distinct roles
in that men are expected to be the head of the family, and women are expected to
be the caregivers
Men are expected to be sexually active in relationships, whereas women are
expected to be passive and to meet men’s needs
There are differences in gender role expectations between various ethnocultural groups
The South Asian Communities (i.e., Indians, Pakistanis)
Religion is a major focus in community life
Hard work, education, and achievement are seen as important
Respect for traditional values, which includes arranged marriages even for people
born in Canada, is highly valued
Boys
Given privileges and freedom; dating is allowed and it is expected that
they will have some sexual experience
Expected to take the lead in the sexual encounter
Girls
May not be allowed to date because female virginity before marriage is
valued
Expected to be passive, submissive, and uninformed about sex
Because of this, many men visit sex workers for casual sex before
and during marriage
Not supposed to question the behavior of their husbands or complain
about extramarital sex
The Chinese Community
Largest visible minority group in Canada
Emphasizes responsibility to the family and community over individualism as in
the majority Canadian culture
Marriage is highly valued – i.e., many couples are reluctant on
divorcing/separating
Men
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