Psychology 2075 Chapter Notes - Chapter 17: Softcore Pornography, Dysfunctional Family, Sex Tourism

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Psych 2075 Human Sexuality
Chapter 17 Sex for Sale
COMMERCIAL SEX WORK
All sexual activities “satisfy a sexual fantasy, produce sexual excitement or arousal
and/or provide sexual satisfaction to the customer”
Sex worker – focuses on the activity and doesn’t imply that a person’s identity is
determined by the activities he/she engages in
Commercial Sex Workers – people who has sex for money or drugs
Prostitution not illegal in Canada
Criminal Code prohibits stopping cars, impeding the flow of traffic, or communicating in
public for the purposes of engaging in prostitutionCommunication Offences
Common Bawdy House – a place where prostitution happens
Pimping and living on money made from prostitution are illegal – the maximum
sentences for these offences are higher than for communication offences
There are no guidelines for where prostitution can take place
People working within massage places, escort services, brothels, and call operations
rarely get charged
More sex workers than customers get charged and their sentences are more severe
More men who pay for sex with women are charged than men who pay for sex with men
Penalize women more often and severely than men
Although Parliament has the power to impose conditions on how prostitutes operate, the
current conditions prevent sex workers from protecting themselves from the risks
associated with their work and violate Canadians’ basic values
oBan on brothels
oLaw against living off the money from prostitution
oBan on street soliciting
More people think prostitution is moral than extramarital sex and drugs
Men were more accepting of prostitution than women
Argue that it is a victimless crime because both parties are consenting
Average of 7 prostitutes killed each year while practicing in Canada
Also need to remove the negative effects that result from social stigma attached to
prostitution – thus sex workers
Female Sex Workers
Venues
Call Girl – works from home making appointments
oMiddle-class background, university grad
oRanges from $150-$200 per hour depending on size of city
oMost expensive and exclusive category of sex workers
oA lot autonomy
Brothel – house of prostitution where sex workers and customers meet for sex
oReplaced by in-call services – sex workers work regular shifts, getting paid
hourly
oLess autonomy than a call girl
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oBrothels and in-call service illegal in Canada
Massage Parlour – massage and sexual services offered
oSome are high end $100-$300 and may charge to a card as a restaurant
oSome are store front and lower quality $40-$100
Escort Services
oEmploy men and women who will engage in sexual activity
oThe escort may have the autonomy to decide what activities he/she will do
oReferred to as an out-call service – escorts go to the clients
oRiskier because escort has no control in the environment
oThey will call before and after for safety and to know how much to charge
oWindsor allows escorts to work out of their homes instead of requiring them to set
up offices in specially zoned areas of the city
oUsually provide the GFE/BFE (girlfriend/boyfriend experience)
Streetwalker – lower status sex worker who works on the streets
oUsually less attractive and less fashionably dressed than the call girl
o$20 quickies (hand-job or oral sex)
o$1800-$2000 per week in Montreal
oMost likely to be arrested
oAt greatest risk for disease and violence
Child and juveniles are often streetwalkers
oAbout ½ of sex workers enter when they are 16-years old
oThere is an increasing demand for child prostitutes
oProhibited to purchase sexual services from anyone under 18
oRecommended that youths involved in prostitution be treated as persons in need
of assistance and not as offenders
The Role of Third Parties
A third party is anyone involved who is neither the client nor the worker
oI.e., supervisors, owners, managers, security, etc.
Many of these relationships are not abusive or exploitative but provide important services
that increase safety, security and well-being
If a sex worker has a pimp, she supports him with her earnings
oThe pimp may provide companionship, sex, bailouts, food, shelter, clothing and
drugs
oProtection against theft and violence
Madam – a woman who manages or owns an in-call service, out-call service, brothel, or
escort service
Third parties reduce the autonomy of sex workers they supervise and may coerce them to
engage with clients or provide activities they don’t want to do
oThe reality depends on the involvement of the third parties in the worker’s daily
life
Sex Trafficking – the recruitment and control of persons for sexual exploitation
oI.e., In developing countries, girls and young women are recruited by ads or by
people who promise them education, jobs or a husband in a developed country
oMost victims end up in Germany, the US, and Italy
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The Career of a Sex Worker
First step of a sex worker’s career is entry
oMany enter for money, material goods, and an exciting lifestyle
oAttracted by the image of a call girl
oTo support a drug addiction
oForce or coercion
Apprenticeship – they learn the skills of the trade
oLearning sexual techniques, how to hustle, negotiation methods and pricing
oHow to maintain control over the interaction to protect herself
oValues (i.e., “the customer is always right”
“Squaring up” or “leaving the life” refers to giving up sex work
PEERS (Prostitutes, Empowerment, Education, and Resource Society) – helps male and
female sex workers to leave the trade
Sex Workers’ Well-Being
Risks to a woman and her well-being vary according to the venue worked in
Women who worked in windows and on streets were at greater risk
Working the streets = greater risk of arrest and violence
Sex workers vs. health care workers and persons in treatment for work-related problems
oSex workers score higher on depersonalization (explained by contextual factors;
coercion, experiences with violent, lack of control)
oStudies conducted in context of legalized prostitution in the Netherlands
oHealth outcomes would be worse in countries where it was illegal
Most incidents occur indoors – in cars (street work), premises (brothels), home (out-call),
worker’s residence (in-call)
Privacy and lack of control major contributors to victimization
Risks high for women being trafficked
Risk of exposure to HIV/AIDS
Sex worker’s risk of HIV infection is greater in his/her private sex life than in the sex
work
High levels of violence and of psychological distress due to the stigma associated with
sex work
oRisk of sexual assault because of attitudes such that prostitutes cannot be sexually
assaulted so no harm is done if you force them to have sex
Drugs and alcohol used to increase confidence and decrease guilt
Depersonalization – a strategy of shutting down feelings and focusing on the task itself
The Role of Early Abuse
History of victimization and trauma as children/adolescents before entering
prostitution associated with poorer well-being
Suggested that childhood abuse leads to feelings of stigmatization  sexual activity
and/or drug use  running away  sex work
Customers
Sex workers refer to their customers as “johns”
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