Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (160,000)
Western (10,000)
PSYCH (5,000)
Chapter 12

Psychology 2310A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Mental Disorder, Attention Seeking, Psychopathology

Course Code
Rod Martin

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 7 pages of the document.
Psychology 2310A Textbook Notes Final Exam
Chapter 12: The Personality Disorders
Concept of Personality Disorder
- Traits: cross-situationally consistent/persistent features
- Combination of traits forms personality
- Personality disorders: patterns of highly maladaptive personality traits
- DSM-IV-TR definition; personality traits are “enduring paterns of perceiving, relating to, and
thinking about environment and oneself that are exhibited in wide range of social and personal
- Common feature of ppl with PDs; personality is rigid/inflexible than most, highly inapprop beh
- Personality disorders include conditions that cause distress primarily for other people
- DSM-IV-TR diagnosis:
o Criterion A pattern of beh must be manifested in at least 2 of: cognition, emotion,
interpersonal functioning, or impulse control
o Criterion B enduring pattern of beh be rigid and consistent across broad range of
personal and social situations
o Criterion C beh should lead to clinically significant distress
o Criterion D stability and long duration of symptoms, w onset in adolescence or earlier
o Criterion E beh cannot be accounted for by another mental disorder
- DSM-IV-TR 3 clusters:
o Cluster A odd and eccentric paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
o Cluster B dramatic, emotional, erractic anti-social, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
o Cluster C anxious and fearful avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
- DSM-5
o Suggested PDNOS moved to personality disorder trait specified to account for disorders
being removed (PDNOS)
- Personality disorders can disrupt alliance between therapist and client
- Wrong diagnosis could lead to wrong treatment plan and/or wrong meds
- Prevalence varies considerably
- Generally, prevalence higher among inpatient psychiatric patients than outpatients
- Personality disorders distinct from other forms of psychopathology and appear on AXIS II NOT
- Egosyntonic: they do not view their behaviour as problematic
Diagnostic Issues
- More diagnostic problems than Axis I disorders
- Two indices important:
o Inter-rater reliability
o Test-retest reliability
- Gender and Cultural Issues

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Psychology 2310A Textbook Notes Final Exam
o Clinicians can misdiagnose certain cultural differences in personality as PD as population
becomes increasingly diverse
o Similar concerns for gender; sex role stereotype may influence diagnosis
o Gender bias presented in DSM criteria for disorders
o Grilo (2003) compared distribution of BPD, STPD, AVPD and OCPD across White,
Black and Asian higher rates of BPD in Asian than White and Black and higher rates of
STPD in Black than White
- Reliability of Diagnosis
o More recent studies suggest PD diagnoses may be becoming more reliable
o Goal of research? Determine stability of personality disorders over time
- Comorbidity and Diagnostic Overlap
o Comorbidity: co-occurrence in same person of 2+ disorders
o Overlap: similarity of symptoms in two or more different disorders
o Research indicates problems w overlap b/w specific disorders
o Patients diagnosed w BP have commonly found to have schizotypal features and
considerable overlap found between BP diagnosis and other PDs
o Scizotypal PD associated with both BPD and NPD
o Psychopathic individuals w Anti social PD show overlapping symptoms w schizoid PD
and NPD
Historical Perspective
- Historically, greater attention to what we call APD
- Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)
o Advocated for use of unscrupulous manipulative amoral and deceptive beh in achieving
power in politics in society
o Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, subclinical psychopathy = Dark Triad
- Pinel (1809)
o Manie sans delire: madness w/out delirium
o Observed profound deficits in emotion but no apparent reasoning/intellectual
- Psychodynamic View
o Psychoanalysts see personality disorder as resulting from disturbances in parent-child
o Process by which child learns that he or she is an individual separate from
o Difficulties in this process result in either inadequate sense of self or problems in dealing
w other people
o Clear evidence that PD adults far more likely than others to have had disrupted
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version