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Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Intro to Personality.docx

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Psychology 2550A/B
David Vollick

Chapter 14: Social Cognitive Conceptions DEVELOPMENT AT THE SOCIAL COGNITIVE LEVEL Cognitive revolution occurred in the early 1950s – revolted against the then dominant behaviorism and continued on to transform psychology (and other behavioral sciences) Shown that the study of mental processes, such as thinking, knowledge, and memory, can provide a parsimonious, yet rigorous, scientific account of mental activity and its links to overt behaviour Albert Bandura – Social Learning Theory  Showed that in addition to rewards and reinforcement, people learn cognitively by observing others and not merely by experiencing rewards for what they do themselves  Observational learning (modeling): learning that occurs without the learner’s receiving direct external reinforcement and without the learner ever performing the learned response at all o Particularly important in learning languages – exposure to models who speak the language leads to relatively rapid acquisition  Consistent with the findings from the cognitive revolution – people learn about the possible consequences of various behaviours from observing what happens to others when they engage in similar behaviours o The observed as well as directly experiences consequences of performances influence subsequent behaviour o Also possible by observing emotional reactions of other to a stimuli to learn an intense emotional response to that stimulus  Bandura emphasizes human capacity to be agentic and exercise self-regulation and self- reflections as people generate behaviour that is proactive and future-oriented o Importance of the human ability to symbolize events and experiences and to anticipate consequences , plan events, and direct one’s goals and activities purposefully through “forethought”  Most important and central construct to Bandura’s broad theory is self-efficacy o The individual’s belief that he or she can successful execute the behaviours required by a particular situation o Clear links between self-perceptions of one’s competence and the ability to actually behave competently o Influences the goals people set for themselves and the risks they are willing to take o According to Bandura, behavioral therapy and other interventions work by increasing efficacy expectations and thus leading people to believe that they can cope with the difficult situations that threatened them before; the best methods are the ones that give the person the most direct, compelling success experiences SOCIAL COGNITIVE RECONCEPTUALIZATION OF PERSONALITY: WALTER MISCHEL Proposed by Mischel in 1973 – appeared at the height of the crisis in personality psychology  addressed the classic assumption of trait theory that people behave in highly consistent ways across different situations; Mischel argued that this assumption was contradicted by the objective evidence and threw they field of personality psychology into turmoil Mischel proposed that consistencies in people’s behaviour could be found by analyzing behaviour in its situational context  people have consistent if…then…situation-behaviour patterns (personality signatures)  people make meaning out of situations they encounter and use this to adapt their behaviour to each situation Mischel identified a basic set of psychological social cognitive person variables – characterize the difference between people in how they interpret social stimuli and situations as they interact with them; variables function together as the person interacts with the social world 1. encodings (how do you see it?): represent construe, appraise, and interpret themselves, other people and events, and their experiences; influences their reactions and how they learn 2. expectancies/beliefs (what will happen?): seeks to predict and understand actual performance in specific situations a. self-efficacy expectations: person’s belief that he or she can perform a particular behaviour – predict with considerable accuracy the person’s actual ability to perform b. behaviour-outcome relations: expected if…then… relations between behavioral alternative and expected probable outcomes in particular situations 3. affects (feelings and ‘hot’ reactions): cognitions such as beliefs about the self and one’s personal future are hot cognition (thoughts that also activate strong emotion); affective reactions to situations may occur immediately and autom
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