Textbook Notes (368,241)
Canada (161,733)
Psychology (4,889)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3.docx

7 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 2660A/B
Natalie J Allen

Chapter 3: Criteria – Standards for Decision Making  Criteria – standards used to help make evaluative judgments o May be unconscious  Disagreement in evaluations of something are usually due to differences in criteria for defining the rating scale of that thing (what defines goodness in a teacher may be different for 2 students which is why one may say he/she is a good teacher and another disagrees) o Sometimes disagreements are not due to differences in criteria, but rather differences in judgment of that criteria o This is due to discrepancies in the meanings attached to the teachers behavior due to personal biases, different expectations, or varying operational definitions  Values and tastes dictate peoples choice of criteria Conceptual Versus Actual Criteria  Before WWII, criteria assessment wasn’t considered important  Conceptual criterion – the theoretical standard that researchers seek to understand o Can never be measured o Ex. Three conceptual criteria in defining a good college student: intellectual growth, emotional growth, citizenship factor  Must turn them into measurable/real factors  Actual criterion – the operational or actual standard that researchers measure or assess – must decide which variables to select as actual criteria o Intellectual growth – GPA? o Emotional growth – How much have they matured? o Citizenship factor – count number of volunteer organizations the student has joined? Criterion Deficiency, Relevance, and Contamination  Express the relationship between conceptual and actual criteria in terms of three concepts: deficiency, relevance, and contamination  Criterion deficiency – the part of the conceptual criterion that is not measured by the actual criterion o How deficient the actual criteria are in representing the conceptual ones o Can reduce (but never eliminate) criterion deficiency  Criterion relevance – the degree of overlap or similarity between the actual criterion and the conceptual criterion o We cannot know the exact amount of relevance because the conceptual criteria are theoretical abstractions  Criterion contamination – the part of the actual criterion that is unrelated to the conceptual criterion – consists of two parts: o Bias – the extent to which the actual criteria systematically or consistently measure something other than the conceptual criteria o Error – extent to which the actual criteria are not related to anything at all  Criterion deficiency distort the actual criterion because certain important dimensions of the conceptual criterion are not included in the actual criterion  Criterion contamination distorts the actual criterion because certain factors are included that don’t belong (they are not present in the conceptual criterion)  Example: setting criteria for a good college student  Criterion deficiency: o Using GPA to measure intellectual growth from a course where students differ in their previous knowledge of the material o An academic advisor measuring emotional maturity because he/she may only have a limited perspective of the student o Counting the number of volunteering done isn’t enough – quality is more important  Criterion contamination: o If some majors are harder than others – this is a bias between GPA and the difficulty of the student’s academic major – this affects the actual criterion (GPA) but not the conceptual criterion (intellectual growth) o Rating emotional maturity may be contaminated by the student’s grades o Counting the number of volunteer groups joined might be contaminated by the student’s popularity  Influences by contamination can be controlled through experimental or statistical procedures – the real problem is anticipating their presence  Psychologists should spend more time choosing actual criteria that will be adequate measures of the conceptual criteria, rather than finding new ways to measure the actual criteria they already have (they may be measuring the wrong thing Work Analysis  Work analysis – a formal procedure by which the content of work is defined in terms of activities performed and attributes needed to perform the work  Time-and-motion studies were used to identify units of work in performing a job  Used to be called “job analysis” but changed it to “work analysis” because the psychological meaning of a job is eroding because of the continuously changing nature of the modern work world  Work analysis includes: 1. The content of the work performed by people in organizations 2. The worker attributes related to its performance 3. The context in which work is performed  Work analysis is regarded as the first step in I/O psych  Used to make personnel decisions  Can get expensive ($1,000,000 for large companies)  Sources of Work Information o The most critical issue in work analysis is the accuracy and completeness of the info o Three major sources of work info and each source is a subject matter expert (SME) – a person knowledgeable about a topic who can serve as a qualified info source  Minimum requirement: person must have direct, up-to-date experience with the work for a long time o Three sources: 1. Job incumbent  Holder of a job  The more experienced they are, the more valuable the info  Rapid changes in work make their usefulness questionable  Use stats to forecast employee characteristics needed 2. Supervisor of the job incumbent  Credible source because they determine what the job incumbents do  More objective than job incumbents in the critical attributes needed to perform the job 3. Work analyst  Used when comparisons are needed across many jobs  Most consistent across-job ratings o Incumbents and supervisors = best sources of descriptive job info o Work analysts = best qualified to comprehend the relationships across jobs o Best to collect data from multiple sources  Work Analysis Procedures o Purpose of work analysis: to explain the activities performed on the job and the human attributes needed to perform it o Tasks – the lowest level of work analysis – a basic component of work  Ex. Typing for a secretary o Position – a set of tasks performed by a single employee  Ex. Position of a secretary is often represented by the tasks of typing, filing, and scheduling o Job – a set of similar positions in an organization  Ex. Secretary, receptionist o Job family – a grouping of similar jobs in an organization  Ex. The clerical job family o Task-Oriented Procedures  Task-oriented procedure – a procedure or set of operations in work analysis designed to identify important or frequently performed tasks as a means of understanding the work performed  Focuses on activities involved in performing work  Basic unit of analysis: tasks  Task statements – concise expressions of tasks performed o Not too general / not too detailed  SMEs rate the task statements to understand a job in terms of frequency, importance, difficulty  Functional job analysis (FJA) – a task-oriented method of work analysis that describes the content of jobs in terms of people, data, and things o When a task requires involvement with people, worker needs interpersonal resources o Requires involvement with data, needs mental resources o Requires things, needs physical resources  FJA obtains two types of task info: 1. What a worker does 2. How a task is performed o Worker-Oriented Procedures  Worker-oriented procedure – designed to identify important or frequently utilized human attributes as a means of understanding the work performed  Human attributes are classified into “KSAOs”: o Knowledge (K) – info people need in order to perform a job o Skills (S) – proficiencies needed to perform a task o Abilities (A) – enduring attributes that are stable over time o Other (O) – all other personal attributes  Skills and abilities always confused – skills are cultivations of innate abilities  KSAO statements are made to provide an understanding of a job based on the human attributes needed to successfully perform the job  Linkage analysis – establishes the connection between the tasks performed and the human attributes needed to perform them o Unites the two types of work analysis info: task-oriented (work activities) and worker-oriented (human attributes) o Identifies what attributes should be assessed among job candidates o More reliable from work analysts than from incumbents  The highest incumbent agreement was for jobs involving use of equipment – there are not different ways one can operate equipment  Jobs that permit wide variation in how they are performed make it more difficult to reach consensus in identifying which critical KSAOs are needed to be successful  How to Collect Work Analysis Information o Work analyst should read the written material as a first step in conducting a formal work analysis o Procedures for Collecting Information 1. Interview – work analyst asks SMEs questions about the nature of their work and the KSAOs needed to perform the tasks  Desirable qualities in SMEs: strong verbal ability, good memory, cooperativeness  Inductive because the work analyst must rely on new info 2. Direct observation – employees are observed as they perform their jobs  Observers try to be unobtrusive – cameras?  Good for appreciating/understanding the adverse conditions under which some jobs are performed  Bad for understanding why certain behaviors occur on the job  Inductive because the work analyst must rely on new info 3. Questionnaire – organizes existing knowledge about work info into a taxonomy – a
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2660A/B

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.