Textbook Notes (368,418)
Canada (161,876)
Psychology (4,891)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9.pdf

8 Pages
Unlock Document

Psychology 2720A/B
Clive Seligman

CHAPTER 9: STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION • Prejudice: a negative attitude toward members of a group, which is often very strongly held • Discrimination: negative, harmful behaviour toward people based on their group membership • Genocide: an attempt to systematically eliminate an ethnic group through banishment or murder Prejudice and Discrimination Today • Aversive Racism: a “modern” kind of prejudice held by people who do not consider themselves prejudiced and who would find any accusation of being prejudiced aversive, but who nevertheless harbour some negative beliefs and hostile feelings toward members of minority groups • Dovidio and Gaertner predicted that many majority group members would exhibit discrimination toward minorities when the circumstances made negative justifiable, thereby providing an excuse • Data suggest that some majority group members continue to harbour prejudice against minority groups, but either lie about it when reporting their attitudes or perhaps even deny it to themselves Stereotypes: Cognitive Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination • One major contribution of social psychology to understanding prejudice has been to identify common cognitive processes that can establish or maintain prejudice • Stereotypes “efficiently” provide us with information about target persons that can guide behaviour; they allow us to make rapid inferences about target persons • Two Costs of Stereotypes: Oversimplification and Negativity • We may assume too much uniformity or similarity within groups of people, especially with respect to large collections such as ethnic groups, nationalities, genders, and occupations • Categories of humans tend not o be uniform or predictable • Stereotypes of large groups are oversimplified and, when applied to a particular individual, often inaccurate • Although some stereotypes consist mainly of positive characteristics, other stereotypes contain negative traits • Stereotypes that are often unfavorable fro several reasons, one being that stereotypes may refer to groups that are believed to be competing with the perceivers group for despite resources • There is also come evidence that being in a bad mood leads perceivers to interpret their stereotypes of some minority groups more negatively • Negative emotions, then, can both elicit and intensify unfavorable stereotypes • People may label their anxiety as dislike for the group • Unfamiliarity and anxiety spill over into mistrust and hostility • Stereotypes Distort Information Processing • Stereotypes are oversimplified and excessively negative might not be so problematic if we processed information in an unbiased way • Humans are not open and unbiased processors of information related to stereotypes CHAPTER 9: STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION • Stereotypes guide attention and interpretation in such as way as to increase the probability that perceivers expectancies will be confirmed • Stereotypes Guide Attention •Stereotypes can distort information processing in several ways One way is by affecting what perceives notice about members of the stereotypes group •Generally, perceivers are sensitive to, and looking for, information that confirms the stereotype •Consistent with Bodenhausen’s predictions, participants who believed the defendant was Carlos Ramirez recalled a higher percentage of the evidence that supported a guilty verdict than did participants who believed the defendant was Robert Johnson • Stereotypes Guide Interpretation •Stereotypes also distort information processing by affecting how perceivers interpret the behaviour of people in the group •Actions that are ambiguous will tend to be interpreted as consistent with expectations • The Potential Vicious Cycle of Stereotypes • Our stereotypes provide a guide for how to behave toward other people • Self-Fulfilling Prophecies •Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: a process in which a perceiver’s expectancy about a target person influences the perceiver's behaviour toward the target person in such a way as to elicit the expected actions form the target person •Word and colleagues results determined that White and Black job applicants were treated differently •Stereotypes can produce expectancies about a target individual, which can then alter the perceivers actions in ways that elicit the expected behaviour from the target •Self-fulfilling prophecies may often be damaging and harmful •Negative stereotypes can produce vicious cycles that perpetuate prejudice and discrimination against disadvantaged groups •Targets may sometimes behave consistently with a negative stereotype simply to maintain a smooth interaction • Do Stereotypes Influence Our Perceptions If We Disagree with Them? • When people agree with a stereotype it influences what they notice and how they interpret behaviour • Subliminal Priming Procedure: a method of activating a schema or stereotype by flashing words or pictures very briefly on a computer screen in front of a participant • Devine found that exposure to words related to the stereotype of Black Americans increased the perceived hostility of ambiguous behaviour for both prejudiced and unprejudiced participants • Devines findings imply that there might be a general bias to interpret Black’s actions as hostile, which will serve to reinforce the stereotype • Implicit Intergroup Bias •Implicit Intergroup Bias: distorted judgements about members of a group based on a stereotype, which can occur without the person’s awareness CHAPTER 9: STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION • Devine findings suggest that everyone may show implicit intergroup bias, even those who disagree with a common stereotype • Some research also suggests that unprejudiced individuals actually seek out information to disconform common stereotypes • Further there is evidence that people who exhibit weak or no implicit intergroup bias also tend to behave in other positive ways toward the target group • Implicit intergroup bias can be reduced by deliberate attempts to be open- minded • Meta-Stereotypes • Meta-Stereotype: a person’s beliefs about the stereotype that outgroup members hold concerning his or her own group • Meta-stereotypes vary according to which particular outgroup is considered • Vorauer and her colleagues showed that meta-stereotypes influence people’s expectations about their interaction with members of the outgroup Emotional Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination • Frustration and Prejudice: Scapegoat Theory • Scapegoat Theory: a theory proposing that prejudice occurs because members of dominant groups use discrimination against members of weak target groups to cent their frustration and disappointment • Perceived Competition and Prejudice: Realistic Group Conflict Theory • Realistic Group Conflict Theory: a theory proposing that when groups in society are perceived to be competing with one another for resources, intergroup hostility can be aroused, which leads to prejudice • Immigrants have been perceived to be competing directly with current residents fro jobs and social benefits • Sometimes groups perceive not only competition for scarce resources from members of outgroups, but also threats to important values • Self-Enhancement Motivation: Social Identity Theory • A third affecting relate factor in prejudice involves a potential positive emotional benefit of derogating outgroups: feeling good about the self, or self-enhancement • Feeling superior to another person can be gratifying, because it indirectly confirms one’s own worth • Self-enhancement happens not only at the individual level but also at the group level • One important component of people’s identity is their group memberships • When people’s ingroup performs better than an outgroup, they report higher self- esteem and more positive judgements of their own abilities • A Unifying Model: Integrated Threat Theory • Integrated Threat Theory: a theory proposing that prejudice results form four types of threats: realistic threats, symbolic threats, threats stemming form intergroup anxiety, and threats arising from negative stereotypes • Stephan and Stephan definition of each type of threat: 1. Realistic Threats - those emphasized by realistic group conflict theory 2. Symbolic Threats - refer to perceived threats to the ingroup’s important attitudes, beliefs, and values CHAPTER 9: STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION 3. Intergroup Anxiety - arise when people feel uncertain and anxious about interacting with members of the outgroup 4. Negative Stereotypes - occur when people believe that members of the outgroup possess undesirable characteristics • Integrated threat theory hypothesizes that these four threats arouse aversive feelings toward the outgroup, such as anxiety, frustration, and ager, thus leading to negative intergroup attitudes Sexism: Prejudice and Discrimination Against Women • Sexism: prejudice and discrimination directed against women because of their gender • Sexism Today • Neosexism: a subtle form of sexism, which includes beliefs that women are no longer disadvantaged and antagonism toward women’s demands for better treatment • Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: a measure of stereotyped attitudes toward women, which is composed of two dimensions, one positive and one negative: benevolent sexism and hostile sexism • Benevolent Sexism: positive but paternalistic attitudes toward women • Hostile Sexism: negative attitudes toward women who violate the traditional stereotype of women • Levels of both benevolent sexism and hostile sexism in a country were negatively correlated with the measures of gender equality in that country • Gender Stereotypes • Characteristics that are associated with women, however, are not ones that would lead to positions of power and status, especially compared to the characteristics believed to be associated with men • Gender stereotypes mirror in division of roles between men and women in society and can make it difficult for women to achieve positions of power and status • Origins of Gender Stereotypes • One important factor is parental socialization: boys and girls are often raised differently • Religious institutions also contribute to gender stereotypes • Another source of gender stereotypes is the mass media • Men and women are portrayed in stereotypical ways in many television shows and movies • It is also likely that distorted interpretations and self-fulfilling prophecies serve t
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2720A/B

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.