Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (4,731)
Psychology 1000 (1,558)
Dr.Mike (659)

7 - Learning and Adaptation - The Role Experience.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 7 Learning and Adaptation: The Role of Experience Adapting to the Environment Intro  Learning: experience produces a relatively enduring change in an organism’s behaviour or capabilities  Experience gives us immediate knowledge o But learning measures the actual changes in performance How do we Learn? The Search for Mechanisms  Behaviourists o Experiences influence behaviour o Learning of directly observable behaviour o Learning to adapt to the environment  Evolution o Learning is a personal adaptation  Result from interactions with immediate and past environments  Not all learning behaviour is adaptive  Cognitive and biological  Cultural - Norms and beliefs Habituation and Sensitization  Habituation: decrease in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus or otherwise too overwhelming o Serves as a key adaptive function o Conserve energy and attend to other stimuli o Sensory information is still there if it is relevant  Sensitization: increase in the strength of response to a repeated stimulus o E.g. receive a second shock, respond faster and more exaggerated Classical Conditioning Associating One Stimulus with Another  Classical Conditioning: learn to associate one stimulus to produce another stimulus Pavlov’s Pioneering Research  Presented various types of food to dogs o Discovered that dogs salivate before the food was present  Dogs have a natural reflex to salivate to food but not to tones o The sound of tone played before food given o And soon the sound of tone will cause the dog to salivate Basic Principles Acquisition  Period during which a response is being learned  Neutral stimulus – when stimuli does not trigger response e.g. tone  Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – e.g. food  Unconditioned response (UCR) – no learning needed to create response e.g. salivate  Learning trial – pair the unconditioned stimulus with the neutral stimulus  Conditioned Response (CR) – learned response o Strong CR response if paired with UCS multiple times or strong UCS  Forward trace pairing / forward short-delay pairing o Optimal for CS to appear no more than 2 or 3 seconds before UCS o Simultaneous pairing produces less rapid conditioning because learning is the slowest 2  Backward pairing (CS presented after UCS) o Learning does not occur  Acquisition Curves o Response strength o Latency (CS – CR) vs trials graph  As trials increase, the latency decreases  Negatively accelerated  Learn more in the beginning o Output measure vs trials  Increases over trials  Negatively accelerated  Asymptotes – faster at first then smoother Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery  Extinction: If CS repeated without UCS after many extinction trials o CR weakens and eventually CS doesn’t pair with UCS  Spontaneous Recovery: reappearance of a previously extinguished CR o CS – UCS bond not unlearned Generalization and Discrimination  Stimulus Generalization: similar stimuli to initial CS elicit a CR o Critical adaptive function  To prevent stimulus generalization from fading o Need to be able to discriminate/detect differences between stimuli o E.g. distinguish irrelevant sounds from ones that signal danger o Discrimination: demonstrated when a CR occurs to one stimulus but not to others o Pairing the CS with the UCS combined with pairing similar stimuli with no consequence Higher-Order Conditioning  Neutral stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with an already established CS o Typically produce a CR that is weaker and easier to forget Applications of Classical Conditioning Acquiring and Overcoming Fear  Some fears are conditioned  If phobias are learned, they can be “unlearned”  Exposure Therapies fear is CR so repeated exposure to feared stimulus allows extinction to occur  Systematic desensitization: patient learns muscular relaxation techniques, then gradually exposed to phobia  Flooding: immediately exposes the person to the phobic stimulus  individuals with a phobia often avoid treatment because they fear having to confront the phobic stimulus  Implosion: patient must “continuously” imagine fearful situation  Counter-Conditioning  Pair the feared object (low) with an overwhelming positive (UCS – UCR)  Gradually increase intensity of the feared object  Feared object now results in positive CR Conditioned Attraction and Aversion  Aversion Therapy: condition an aversion (a repulsion) to pair with a unwanted noxious UCS o e.g. to reduce an alcoholic’s attraction to alcohol  patient given drug that induces nausea when alcohol is consumed  neutral stimuli paired with other stimuli that already elicit positive or negative attitudes o when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a natural allergen (UCS), it may become an allergic CR 3 Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences  Emitted voluntary responses Thorndike’s Law of Effect  Studied how animals solved problems  Instrumental learning = Skinner’s Operant Learning  Law of effect o a response followed by a “satisfying” consequence will become more likely to occur o a response followed by a “unsatisfying” consequence will be less likely to occur Skinner’s Analysis of Operant Conditioning  type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by its consequences o similar to Thorndike’s Law of Effect o type of natural selection that facilitates an organism’s personal adaptation to the environment o learn to increase behaviours that benefit them and reduce behaviours that harm them  Skinner box o Lever and food and rat o Reinforcement: strengthened by a reinforcer  Strengthened – increase in the frequency of a response  Reinforcer – outcome that increases the frequency of a response o Punishment: opposite of reinforcement, response is weakened by outcomes  Punisher – consequence that weakens the behaviour ABCs of Operant Conditioning  Antecedents (A) - Stimuli present before behaviour occurs  Behaviours (B) - that the organism emits  relations between A and B and B and C are called  Consequences (C) - That follow the behaviours contingencies (one outcome more likely to occur)  Classical operant conditioning o Between two stimuli (CS and UCS) that occurs before behaviour o CR triggered involuntary, almost like a reflex by a stimulus that precedes it  Operant conditioning o Organism learns an association between behaviour and its consequence o Behaviour change/response because of the events that occur after it o Focuses on emitted behaviour  One stimulus can have both classical and operant conditionings Antecedent Conditions: Identifying When to Respond  Discriminative Stimulus: signal that a particular response will now produce certain consequences o Guide much of our everyday behaviour Consequences: Determining How to Respond Positive Reinforcement  Response is strengthen by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus  Positive reinforcer – stimulus that follows and strengthens the response  Behaviour reinforced by desirable outcomes e.g. food, attention, praise, money etc. Negative Reinforcement  Response is strengthen by the subsequent removal or avoidance of a stimulus  E.g. take medicine to relief headache  Negative reinforce – stimulus removed or avoided  Punishment and negative reinforcement is different 4 Operant Extinction  Weakening and eventual disappearance of a response because it is no longer reinforced  Resistance to extinction o Degree to which non-reinforced responses persist o Low resistance – stop occurring quickly  Good alternative to punishment as a method for reducing undesirable behaviours o Time out from positive reinforcement Positive / Aversive Punishment  A response is weaken by the subsequent presentation of a stimulus  Often produce rapid results  It suppresses behaviour but doesn’t make the them forget how to make the response  Suppression may not generalize to other relevant situations  More physical punishment leads to more aggressive behaviour in children Negative Punishment / Response Cost  Response is weakened by the subsequent removal of a stimulus, depriving of other stimuli that one desires  Does not cause hatred, aggression or strong fear of punishing agent  Should reward a prize Primary and Secondary Consequences  Primary Reinforcers: stimuli that an organism naturally finds reinforcing because they satisfy biological needs  Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers: e.g. money, performance feedback, grades  Can be primary or secondary punishment but regardless, the consequence has biological importance or learning Immediate vs Delayed Consequences  Timing of consequences influence humans less since we can imagine, compare future, immediate consequences  Delay of Gratification: ability to choose a delayed satisfying outcome rather than immediate smaller reward o Developed during preschool years o Inability  difficulty coping with stress and frustration  chronic drinking, smoking, criminal acts o Those consequences show immediate gratification and bad long term consequences Shaping and Chaining: Taking One Step at a Time  Shaping (Method of Successive Approximations): gradually work and rewarded towards goal  Chaining: develop sequence/chain of responses by reinforcing each response with opportunity to perform next o Usually train through going backwards with the final response and add a response previous to it Generalization and Discrimination  Operant Generalization: operant response occurs to a new stimulus or situation that is similar to original one  Operant Discrimination: operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another o E.g. parents’ presence or absence (discriminative stimuli) o Stimulus c
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 1000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.