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Chapter 14

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Psychology 1000

Personality – Chapter 14 3/5/2012 1:39:00 PM What is Personality? Personality traits – characterize individuals in customary ways Personality – the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, felling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations Personality has three characteristics. Your thoughts, feeling and actions…  Distinguish you from other people  Are viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors  “Fit together” in a meaningful fashion, suggesting that inner personality guides and directs behaviour Personality has been guided by the psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, cognitive and sociocultural perspectives  These proved different conceptions of what personality is  Even theorists have their own personalities that influence how they perceive and understand themselves in their world The Psychodynamic Perspective Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory  Freud – patients with conversion hysteria – symptoms caused by the painful memories and feelings that seemed to have been repressed, or pushed out of awareness o Convinced him that the unconscious part of the mind exerts a great influence on behaviour o Says instinctual drives generate psychic energy, which powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct of indirect release o Psychic energy – generated by instinctual drives, discharged directly or indirectly o Mental events may be:  Conscious – mental events that we are presently aware of  Preconscious – contains memories, thoughts, feelings and images that we are unaware of at the moment but that can be called into conscious awareness  Unconscious o Divided personality into three separate but interacting structures:  Id  In the unconscious mind, innermost core of personality, the only structure present at birth, source of psychic energy  No direct contact with reality  Pleasure principle – seeks immediate gratification or release, regardless of rational considerations and environmental realities  Cannot directly satisfy itself  Ego  Functions primarily at the conscious level and operates according to the reality principle  Decides when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and satisfy his needs  Tries to delay gratification until conditions are safe and appropriate  Superego  The moral arm of personality  Controls the instincts of the id – particularly the sexual and aggressive impulses that are condemned by society  Blocks gratification permanently - quest for perfection  Moralistic goals take precedence over realistic ones The dynamics of personality involve a never-ending struggle between the id trying to discharge its instinctive energies and the opposing forces generated by the ego and the superego. Observable behaviour often represents compromises between motives, needs, impulses, and defences Ego confronts impulses that threaten to get out of control – anxiety results Ego may resort to defence mechanisms that deny or distort the release of impulses from the id in disguised forms that will not conflict with the limits imposed by the superego if realistic strategies are ineffective in reducing anxiety Psychoanalysists believe that repression is the primary means by which the ego “keeps the lid on the id”  The ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety- arousing memories, feelings, and impulses from entering consciousness  Defence mechanisms: o Repression – anxiety-arousing impulses or memories are pushed into the unconscious mind o Denial – a person refuses to acknowledge anxiety-arousing aspects of the environment o Displacement – an unacceptable or dangerous impulse is repressed and then directed at a safe substitute target o Intellectualization – emotion connected with an upsetting event is repressed o Projection – an unacceptable impulse that is repressed and then attributed to other people o Rationalization – a person constructs a false but plausible explanation or excuse for an anxiety-arousing behaviour or event that has already occurred o Reaction formation – an anxiety-arousing impulse is repressed and its psychic energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour o Sublimation – a repressed impulse is released in the form of a socially acceptable or even admired behaviour  Personality is powerfully moulded by experiences in the first years of life o Children pass through a series of psychosexual stages during which the id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasure- sensitive areas of the body called erogenous zones  Oral – fixation = self-indulgence; dependency  Anal – fixation = compulsive cleanliness; rigid rules’ or messy and dominant  Phallic – Oedipus complex – move from sexual attachment to opposite-sex parent to identity with same-sex parent  Latency – period of dormant sexuality  Genital – formation of social and sexual relationships  Neoanalysts – psychoanalysts who disagree with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and developed their own theories o Freud didn’t give social and cultural factors a sufficiently important role in the development and dynamics of personality o He stressed infantile sexuality too much o Laid too much emphasis on the events of childhood as determinants of adult personality o Erikson believed that personality development ocntiues throughout the lifespan o Adler insisted that humans are inherently social beings who are motivated by social interest, the desire to advance the welfare of others  Proposed striving for superiority – drives people to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves and to strive to be ever more competent in life  After Freud’s death a new psychodynamic emphasis, object relations, because influential o The images or representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers The Humanistic Perspective  Emphasize the central role of conscious experience, as well as the individual’s creative potential and inborn striving for self-actualization  Rogers was one of the most influential humanistic theorists o Believed that forces within us direct our behaviour and when they are not blocked by our environment, they can be trusted to direct us toward self- actualization o We have a need for self-consistency – the absence of conflict – and congruence – consistency between self-perceptions and experience o Believed we are born with an innate need for positive regard – for acceptance, sympathy, and love from others  Unconditional positive regard – the child is inherently worthy or love  Conditional positive regard – dependent on how the child behaves  Need for positive self-regard  Conditions of worth – dictate when we approve or disapprove of ourselves o Fully functioning persons – people that do not hide behind masks or adopt artificial roles  Feel a sense of inner freedom, self-determination, and choice  Research on the self o Self-esteem – how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves  Small differences between male and female self-esteem in adults  Males report high self-esteem than females in late adolescence  Higher is parents accept and love children, establish clear behavioural guidelines, etc.  When inflated self-esteem is threatened, individuals may react aggressively to protect their self-esteem o Self-verification  Preserving their self-concept by maintaining self-consistency and congruence  Marriages are more successful when the partner agrees with the other’s negative self-image or positive self-image  Self-enhancement – trying to gain a positive self-image o Self-serving biases – attribute successes to own abilities, and failure to environment o Culture and social aspects influence self-perceptions o Gender schemas – in different cultures, men and women are supposed to have specific roles, and these roles vary from culture to culture o Humanistic theories – what matters most is how people view themselves  Rogers developed a theory of self-growth  Measured the discrepancy between clients’ ideal selves and their perceived selves  Clients when first enter therapy the discrepancy is large, but gets smaller as therapy proceeds Frontiers  Whether success makes a person feel good or anxious, whether or not someone acts to improve a bad mood depends importantly on their self-esteem  People with low self-esteem don’t enjoy their success the way that those high in self-esteem success  People with high self-esteem experience more illness  Success doesn’t boost the self-esteem of those with low self-esteem – it has a negative effect – increases anxiety Trait and Biological Perspectives  Trait theorist – describe the basic classes of behaviour that define personality, devise ways to measure individual differences in personality traits and use these measures to understand and predict a person’s behaviour  Factor analysis – find correlations among behaviours  Allport – used factor analysis to identify behaviours that are correlated with each other o Introversion-extraversion dimension – one end being outgoing and sociable, other end shy and enjoys solitary activities  Cattell – 16 behaviour clusters – 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire  Eysenck’s extraversion stability model o Originally 2 basic dimensions, added a 3 rd o First:  Extraversion – ability to be sociable, active, willing to task risks  Seek social contact because they are chronically underaroused  Introversion – social inhibition, passivity, caution  Chronically overaroused – they try to minimize stimulation and reduce arousal by low key activities These are independent, NOT correlated dimensions o Second:  Stability-Instability continuum  Score high or low on emotional stability o Third:  Psychoticism-Self Control (Neuroticism)  Score high or low – high = creative  Five factor model o Similar to Eysenck’s model o Openness o Conscientiousness o Extraversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism  The stability of personality trait varies o Ex. Someone is highly conscientious in one situation (coming to work on time) and not conscientious in another (turn in an assignment on time)  Personality traits “meld” together – increases variety  Self-monitoring o People with high self-monitoring pay close attention to environmental cues and alter their behaviour to what they think would be most appropriate o Low self-monitoring – act based on internal beliefs and attitudes Personality and Health  Type A o High levels of competitiveness, ambition, time urgency  Type B o More relaxed, agreeable, less time urgency  Type C o Sociable, bottle up negative emotions, associated with risk for cancer  Pessimism – greater risk for: o Helplessness, depression, vulnerability for disease/death, more illnesses over lifetime  Conscientiousness – greater health and longevity Focus on Neuroscience  Five factor model doesn’t explain why people behave the way they do, simple classifies the behaviour Social Cognitive Theories  Trait theorists account for behaviour from “the inside out”  Radical behaviourists explain behaviour from “the outside in”  Reciprocal determinism – the person, the person’s behaviour, and the environment all influence one another in a pattern of two-way causal links  Rotter o The likelihood that we will engage in a particular behaviour in a certain situation is influenced by two factors:  Expectancy – our perception of how likely it is that a certain consequence will occur if we engage in a particular behaviour  Reinforcement value – how much we desire or dread the outcome that we expect the behaviour to produce o Internal-external locus of control – an expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives  Internal locus of control – believe that life outcomes are largely under personal control  External locus of control – one’s fate has less to do with their own efforts than with the influence of external factors  Bandura o Human agency – humans are active agents in their own lives  We aren’t just a mercy of the environment, we make plans and set goals and behave in ways that help us reach our goals  4 aspects:  Intentionality – we plan, modify our plans and act with intention  Forethought – we anticipate outcomes, set goals and actively choose behaviours relevant to those goals  Self-reactiveness – processes we use to modify our goals, monitor our progress, and sometimes change strategies  Self-reflectiveness – evaluate our own motivations, values and goals o Self-efficacy – one’s beliefs concerning their ability to perform the behaviours needed to achieve desired outcomes  Four important determinants:  Performance attainments – women who mastered martial arts feel better about being successful in a self-defense situation, but not in all aspects of their lives  Previous success and failure experiences on similar tasks  Observational learning – if you observe a person similar to yourself accomplish a particular goal, then you are likely to believe that if you perform those same behaviours, you will also succeed  Verbal persuasion – the messages we get from other people who affirm our abilities or downgrade them affect our efficacy beliefs  Emotional arousal – arousal that can be interpreted as enthusiasm or anxiety  Mischel – a more cognitive approach to personality is required o We expect people to behave in a consistent way – we excuse irregular behaviours by saying things like “she must be tired today”  The actual level of consistency is very low – consistency paradox o Theory – cognitive-affective personality system  Both the person and the situation matter – it is the interaction between the two that determines behaviour Research Foundations  Bandura – the most influential psychologist of the modern era  External influences, such as models, effect decisions and behaviours Personality Assessment  Interviews o Structured and standardized questions o Drawbacks – characteristics of interviewer can affect answers  Behaviour assessments o Coding system  Remote behaviour sampling – respondents carry around a beeper and get paged at random times during the day and they are to record their current thoughts, feelings or behaviours, depending on what is being assessed  Personality scales – standardized questions that are scored o Items on personality scales are developed in two major ways:  Rational approach – researcher selects items based on the trait they are measuring  Empirical approach – items are chosen because they were answered differently by groups of people for a specific trait o Advantage – collect a lot of data o Disadvantage – validity of answers – validity scales  All assessments use validity scales  Projective tests – person is presented with an ambiguous stimulus, whose meaning is not clear, the interpretation attached to the stimulus will have to come partly from within o Rorschach inkblots – person is asked what they see in the inkblot  See peering eyes and threatening figures – people are viewed as projecting their own paranoid fears and suspicions onto the stimuli  Thematic apperception test – series of pictures, respondents are asked to describe what is going on in the scene  Stories are analyzed for themes that are assumed to reflect personality For both, interpretation by examiner can cause lack of reliability (interpret differently) Exam Question 1 The distinctive and relatively consistent ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize a person’s responses to various life situations is defined as: Personality Exam Question 2 Freud divided personality into three separate but interacting structures called: A. The conscious, unconscious, and preconscious mind B. The id, ego, and superego C. Repression, denial and sublimation D. The id, conscious and denial B: The id, ego, and superego Exam question 3 Jake’s girlfriend just broke up with him and Jake does not appear to be upset at all. Jake keeps talking about the strength of character he has developed and the interesting way in which his girlfriend decided to break up with him. Jake may be employing the ____________ defense mechanism. A. Intellectualization B. Denial C. Sublimation D. Projection A: Intellectualization Exam question 4 According to Carl Rogers and other humanistic theorists, the active process of realizing our total human potential is referred to as: A. Self-actualization B. Self-efficacy C. Self-enhancement D. Self-verification A: Self-actualization Exam question 5 A lack of consistent guidelines and punishment as well as a loss of love for misbehavior were both mentioned as factors that can contribute to the development of low __________ in children. A. Self-esteem B. Self-verification C. Self-monitoring D. Self-consistency A: Self-esteem Exam question 6 Given a list of activities a person enjoys most, you may accurately predict the way a person would behave in a future situation. In this way, you do not have to observe the person’s every behaviour you can simply group “like” behaviours together and make predictions about future novel behaviour based on these. This method is the basic idea behind: A. Sequential analysis B. Factor analysis C. Self-monitoring analysis D. Evolutionary analysis B: Factor analysis Exam question 7 The approach to personality that emphasizes the interaction between thinking and learning experiences provided by individuals’ social environments is called the: A. Interactive trait approach B. Self-consistency approach C. Social cognitive approach D. Social humanistic approach C: Social cognitive approach Exam question 8 Self-report measures and projective tests are both examples of which type of personality assessment? A. Interviews B. Behavioural assessments C. Physiological measures D. Psychological tests D: Psychological tests Exam question 9 The basic assumption underlying projective tests is that if you present someone with a stimulus, the interpretation for this stimulus will come from within and thus presumably represent or reflect the person’s inner needs and feelings. It is necessary that the stimulus is _________________. A. Sexual B. Ambiguous C. Psychodynamically meaningful D. Provocative B: Ambiguous Stress, Coping, and Health – Chapter 15 3/5/2012 1:39:00 PM 1/3 of adult Canadians show symptoms of chronic stress 41% of adult Canadians report their level of work stress as high or very high The Nature of Stress Psychologists view stress in three different ways: 1. A stimulus – stressors - eliciting stimuli or events that place strong demands on us 2. A response - stress has also been viewed as a response that has a cognitive, physiological, and behavioural component o The presence of negative emotions reflects in stress response 3. An organism-environment interaction - third way of thinking about stress combines stimulus and response – person-action interaction, aka transaction between the organism and the environment Stress – a pattern of cognitive appraisals, physiological responses, and behavioural tendencies that occurs in response to a perceived imbalance between situational demands and the resources need to cope with them Transactional model of stress – interactions among situational, cognitive appraisal processes, physiological responses, and behavioural attempts to cope  Predicts individual differences in response to stressors Stressors  Stressors – specific kinds of eliciting stimuli o They place demands on us that endanger well-being, requiring adaptation o The greater the imbalance between demands and resources, the more stressful a situation is likely to be o Can range from:  Microstressors – daily hassles and everyday annoyances  To severe stressors  Catastrophic events that occur unexpectedly and affect large numbers of people (ie. Natural disasters, war, etc.)  Major negative events like being a victim of sexual abuse, the loss of a loved one  Both require major adaptation o Events which occur suddenly and unpredictably and that affect a person over a long period of time seem to take the greatest toll on physical and psychological well-being  Life event scales – studies linkages between life events and well-being o Quantifies the amount of life stress that a person has experienced over a given period of time o Relies on self-reports  Early theorists – any life event that requires adaptation, whether negative or positive, is a stressor  Modern researchers – define stress in terms of negative life changes only The Stress Response We respond to situations as we perceive them The starting point for stress response is – our appraisal of the situation and its implications for us  4 aspects of the appraisal process: o Appraisal of the demands of the situation (primary appraisal) o Appraisal of the resources available to cope with it (secondary appraisal) o Judgments of what the consequences of the situation could be o Appraisal of the personal meaning (what the outcome might imply about us)  Distortions and mistaken appraisals can occur at any of the four points in the appraisal process, causing inappropriate stress responses o People may overestimate the seriousness of the consequences and the likelihood they will occur, or they may have irrational self-beliefs that confer inappropriate meaning of the consequences May explain why different people react differently to the same situation Chronic Stress and the Gas  Hans Selye – general adaptation syndrome (GAS) – physiological response pattern to strong and prolonged stressors o Three phases:  Alarm reaction – in response to a physical or psychological stressor – increased arousal  Due to the sudden activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the release of stress hormones by the endocrine system  Leads to an increased heart rate and respiration, dilation of the pupils, and slow digestion  Reaction helps the body deal with the source of the stress  Slowing of digestion leads to blood being diverted from the digestive system to muscle  Increased heart rate and respiration means that the blood that is arriving at your skeletal muscles has more oxygen  Pupil dilation makes our eyes more sensitive to light and enhances vision  Hormonal response – perception of a threat – hypothalamus to pituitary to adrenal glands – produce cortisol  Triggers an increase in blood sugars o Extra blood arriving at skeletal muscles also has more sugar  Cortisol suppresses inflammation if you are injured  Stress response enhances “fight” – confront the source of stress – or “flight” – retreat from the source of stress – response  Parasympathetic nervous system works to balance the sympathetic nervous system (homeostasis)  Reduces arousal  Has a time limit – can’t last forever  Resistance  Body’s resources continue to be mobilized so that the person can function despite the stressor  Can last for a relatively long time – depends on the severity of the stress, the individual’s general health, availability for support, and other factors  Eventually run out of bodily resources  Exhaustion  The body’s resources are dangerously depleted  Increased vulnerability to disease, and perhaps even collapse or death Stress and Health Stress and Psychological Well-Being  Effects of stress on psychological well-being are most dramatic among people who have experiences catastrophic life events o Rubonis and Bickman – average increase of 17% in rates of psychological disorders in people who have experiences catastrophic events  Rape trauma syndrome – for months or even years after the rape, victims may feel nervous and fear another attack by a rapist o Many victims move houses but continue to have nightmares and are frightened when they are alone, outdoors, or in crowds o Victims have decreased enjoyment of sex o ¼ of women felt they hadn’t recovered 6 years later  Neuroticism – people who are high in neuroticism have a heightened tendency to experience negative emotions and get themselves into stressful situations through their maladaptive behaviours o Ormel and Wohlfarth found that initial scores on a neuroticism scale were related positively to both the number of stressful events and the amount of psychological distress reported over the next six years Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  Romeo Dallaire – in charge of the United Nations peacekeeping force for Rwanda o Found intoxicated under a park bench in Quebec o Blamed himself for what had happened  PTSD – what can happen to victims of extreme stress and trauma o Sever anxiety disorder that is caused by exposure to traumatic life events o 4 major groups of symptoms  Sever anxiety, physiological arousal and distress  Painful, uncontrollable reliving of the event in flashbacks, dreams, and fantasies  Emotional numbing and avoidance of stimuli associated with the trauma  Intense “survivor guilt” in instances where others were killed by the individual survived o Women are more likely to develop PTSD than men o Civilian victims are more likely to develop PTSD than soldiers o Doesn’t necessarily develop right after trauma (usually within three months, but could be years) o PTSD increases risks for other problems, such as alcoholism o Post-trauma intervention is needed! Stress and Illness  Stressful events can cause other illnesses – ex. And earthquake causes heart attacks  Within a month following the death of a spouse, widowers being to show a higher mortality rate than married people of the same age who have not lost a spouse  Stressful life events increase one’s risk of cancer  The more stressors, the more prone to illness  A traumatic life event can worsen an pre-existing medical condition  Stress can cause illness by causing a break-down in immune system functioning o Kiecolt-Glaser – married couples that had a heated argument had decreased immune function within 24 hours  Stress may lead to smoking, alcohol and drug use, sleep loss, undereating and overeating, and other heath-compromising behaviours  Prolonged exposure of the hippocampus to elevated stress hormone levels leads to deterioration of the hippocampus  Meaney – mild stresses early in life may serve to inoculate the individual against subsequent stressors o Improves maternal behaviour in females, which can be passed from generation to generation Vulnerability and Protective Factors Vulnerability factors – increase people’s susceptibility to stressful events Protective factors – environmental or personal resources that help people cope more effectively with stressful events Social Support  Social support – the knowledge that we can rely on others for help and support in a time of crisis helps to blunt the impact that stress has o People with high levels of social support produce more immune cells than those with low social support  May explain why people who have high levels of social support are more disease-resistant  Social isolation – an important vulnerability factor o People with weak social ties are more likely to die than those with strong ties  Why is social support such a strong protective factor? o Makes people feel they are part of a social system experience – a greater sense of identity and meaning in their lives  Results in greater psychological well-being  Pennebaker – had students talk about their traumatic experiences o The immune functioning in those who had purged themselves of negative emotions was much strong than those that hadn’t talked o These students had 50% fewer visits to the doctor than the others o Holocaust study – people discuss their experience in the Holocaust  The most disclosing experiences had the most improved health Focus on Neuroscience  Social support may alter our reaction to potential stressors in 2 ways: o Social support may limit the impact of a potential threat even before we generate a stress response  People with good support may feel less threatened and are then less likely to interpret a situation as threatening and stressful  Involvement of the amygdala and ACC  Social support could alleviate the impact of stress after an event has been appraised as stressful and a stress response activated by blunting the stress response or allowing more effective recovery after the stress is over  PFC helps regulate emotionality and suppresses negative emotions Cognitive Protective Factors: The Importance of Beliefs  Hardiness – commitment, control, challenge o Control is the strongest component of hardiness and the best buffer of stress  Coping self-efficacy – the conviction that we can perform the behaviours necessary to cope successfully o Efficacy depends on the situation, but previous successes increase efficacy, and previous failures undermine it  Positive affect is linked to better health and a longer life o Our beliefs about the future play an important role in stress o Optimists have a rosy view of the future o Pessimists focus on the black cloud  Greater risk or helplessness and depression when faced with a stressful event  Personality o Type A – people that tend to live under great pressure and are demanding of themselves and others; very competitive  Double the risk for coronary heart disease  Not because of pressures, rather because of negative emotions o Type B – more relaxed, more agreeable, have far less sense of time urgency o Conscientious people are less likely to engage in risky behaviours and are therefore less likely to die from violent deaths in accidents or fights  Also less likely to smoke and drink in excess  More likely to exercise regularly, eat a balanced diet, etc.  Humanistic theorists say humans need to find the meaning in one’s life o Some people find it through spiritual beliefs – can either increase or decrease stress  Viewing God as punishing them o Find a sense of meaning in a traumatic event – helps with coping Physiological Reactivity  Physiological toughness (a stress hormone) is a protective factor o Involves relations between two classes of hormones secreted by the adrenal glands in the face of stress:  Catecholamines (ie. Epinephrine and norepinephrine)  Increases immune system functioning  Corticosteroids (cortisol)  Decreases immune system functioning These mobilize the body’s fight-or-flight response o Consists of:  A low resting level of cortisol, low levels of cortisol secretion in response to stressors, and a quick return to the baseline level of cortisol after the stress is over  A low resting level of catecholamines but a quick and strong catecholamine response when the stressor occurs, followed by a quick decline in catecholamine secretion and arousal when the stressor is over Frontiers  Even mild to moderate levels of stress can interfere with the functioning of the frontal cortex and impair working memory, concentration, and problem solving  PKC interferes with working memory Coping with Stress Coping strategies:  Problem-focused coping o Confront and deal directly with the demands of the situation, or to change the situation so that it is no longer stressful o Planning o Active coping and problem-solving o Suppressing competing activities o Exercising restraint o Assertive confrontation  Emotion-focused coping o Mange the emotional responses that result from stress o Positive reinterpretation o Acceptance o Denial o Repression o Escape-avoidance o Wishful thinking o Controlling feelings  Seeking social support o Turning to others for assistance o Help and guidance o Emotional support o Affirmation of worth o Tangible aid (ie. Money) Effectiveness of Coping Strategies  Holahan and Moos – found that problem-focused coping methods and seeking social support were associate with favourable adjustment to stressors Controllability and Coping Efficacy  Emotion-focused coping may be most effective when one cannot influence or modify a situation  Strentz and Auerbach – tested the effectiveness of emotion-focused coping o Airline employees were “abducted” and held hostage as part of a training program o Prior to abduction, assigned randomly to 2 experimental conditions and a control condition  1 condition: employees were trained in problem-focused techniques that can be used to modify the situation  2 condition: focused on emotional reactions that would be experienced and techniques to cope  Control – no coping skills training o Results: employees trained in emotion-focused coping adapted better to the situation (problem-focused would not work because they can not change the situation they are in) Bottling Up Feelings: The Costs of Constraint  Writing of talking about traumatic events provides exposure to these cues and the exposure allows extinction to occur  Best way to cope is to have a balance – understand when you need to talk about a situation and when not too Gender, Culture, and Coping  Men are more likely to favour problem-focused coping as their first strategy  Women are more likely to seek social support  Women are morel likely to use emotion-focused coping Consistent with socialization – men are typically pushed to be more independent and self-sufficient, whereas girls are expected to be more emotionally expressive and supportive  North Americans and Europeans use problem-focused coping more than Asian and Hispanic peoples (they use emotion-focused coping and social support)  Cognitive restructuring – change appraisal  Self-instructional training – learn adaptive self-statements Applications  Phase of coping process: o Prepare for the stressor o Confront and handle the stressor o Cope with the feeling of being overwhelmed o Evaluate and self-reinforce Pain and Pain Management  Pain – sensory and emotional component o Biological mechanisms of pain  Nerve endings in the skin and internal organs respond to mechanical, thermal, chemical stimulation  Nerve impulses to spinal cord  To thalamus  To somatosensory cortex and frontal areas  To limbic system (emotional component of pain)  Gate control theory – opening and closing of ‘gating mechanisms’ o 2 types of sensory fibres – thin and thick o Thin = sharp pain impulses o Thick = dull-pain and touch o Greater thin fibre activity ‘opens gates’  Central control mechanism – messages from the brain influence experience of pain  Endorphins – natural opiates – modify action of neurons o Inhibit release of neurotransmitters involved in pain transmission o Up to 200x more potent than morphine o Chronic high levels block immune system response  Stress induced analgesia o Reduction/absence of pain under stress o Adaptive response to threatening situations  Placebos – the belief in taking something effects response  Neuroticism – greater pain response  Optimism and control – lower pain response  Chronic pain – acceptance of pain – better adjustment and performance  Loss of social support = greater pain and distress  Dissociation strategies – distraction from painful input o Direction attention elsewhere o Imaging pleasurable experience  Virtual reality therapy – project pleasant images while dealing with pain  Association strategy – focus on pain – don’t label it as painful Health Promotion and Illness Prevention  Improvements in health are more likely the result of efforts to prevent disease and promote health than from new drugs and medical technologies  The 10 leading causes of death can be traced to cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, insufficient exercise, poor dietary habits, use of illicit drugs, failure to adhere to doctor’s instructions, and other self-defeating behaviours, such as risky sex and failure to wear seatbelts o Its no longer due to pneumonia, tuberculosis and influenza – we can prevent theses o Now from heart disease, cancer and stroke – all our technology can’t help  Health psychology – studies psychological and behavioural factors in the prevention and treatment of illness and in the maintenance of health  Health-related behaviours fall into 2 categories: o Health-enhancing behaviours – serve to maintain or increase health  Ie. Exercise, healthy eating habits, etc. o Health-comprising behaviours – promote the development of illness  Ie. Smoking, fatty diets, etc. How People Change: The Transtheoretical Model  Transtheoretical model – 6 major stages in the change process o Precontemplation – problem unrecognized or unacknowledged o Contemplation – recognition of problem, contemplating change o Preparation – preparing to try to change behaviour o Action – implementing change strategies o Maintenance – behaviour change is being maintained o Termination – permanent change, no maintenance efforts required Changes occur over time – typically takes 3-5 cycles through the action stage for smokers before they finally beat the habit Research Foundations  Married couples were told the wife would experience random shocks  When holding her husbands hand she was less nervous than when holding a strange males hand and no one’s hand Increasing Behaviours that Enhance Health  Exercise o Couch potatoes are at risk for coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity o Aerobic exercise – sustained activity that elevates your heart rate and increases the body’s need for oxygen  Can result in lower cholesterol, faster adaptation to stressors, more calories burned, etc. o Once people start an exercise program, 50% will dropout within six months  Biggest cause of dropout: lack of social support  Weight control o Since 1980, the average North American adult’s body weight has increased by ~3.6kg o 23% of adult Canadians are obese o 500% increase in childhood obesity between 1980 and 2004 o Fat localized in the abdomen is a far greater risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer than is excessive fat in the hips, thighs, or buttocks o Accumulation of abdominal fat is increased by yo-yo dieting – big up and down weight fluctuations Reducing Behaviours that Impair Health  16,000 new infections of AIDS occur each day  Initially rates of infection rose among homosexual men, now women are 50% of the cases  AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) o Cripples the immune system by killing cells that coordinate the body’s attack against invading viruses, bacteria, and tumours, which become the actual killers  AIDS changes rapidly – vaccines don’t help  May have AIDS for 10 years before showing any symptoms  AIDS is mainly contracted through direct exposure to infected semen, vaginal fluids, and blood  Women with HIV can infect their babies  Social cognitive approach – aired a tv show that showed a male truck-driver having lots of unprotected sex, his wife left him and became a successful business women and he eventually got AIDS and died o Awareness! Combatting Substance Abuse Smoking is the largest cause of preventable death Psychological Approaches to Treatment and Prevention  Motivational interviewing – leads people to their own conclusions by asking questions that focus on discrepancies between the current state of affairs and individuals’ ideal self-images, desired behaviours and desired outcomes o Counselors help clients set goals and determine a strategy for behaviour change o They provide feedback and support for the client  Cravings are huge barriers to overcome  Negative emotions, such as anxiety, irritability, or depression cause many people who successfully quit to have relapses  Past conditioning may trigger a relapse o Ie. One usually smokes when drinks coffee, have a coffee, want a smoke  Multimodal treatments – biological and psychological measures o Aversion therapy – undesired behaviour is associated with an averse stimulus (electric shock) to create a negative emotional response to the currently pleasurable substance o Relaxation and stress management training – helps the person adapt to stressful situations  Mindful meditation o Self-monitoring procedures – help the person identify the antecedents and consequences of the abuse behaviours o Coping and social skills training for dealing with situations that trigger abuse o Marital and family counseling to reduce conflicts and increase social support o Positive reinforcement procedures to strengthen change  Relapse – a return to the undesirable behaviour pattern  Lapse – a one-time ‘slip’  Relapse prevention – to keep lapses from becoming relapses  Model of relapse: Person encounters high-risk situation –> coping response –> increased self-efficacy –> decreased probability of relapse OR Person encounters high-risk situation –> no coping response –> decreased self-efficacy/positive outcome expectancies (for initial effects of substance) –> initial use of substance –> abstinence violation effect + perceived effects of substance –> increased probability of relapse  Likelihood of relapse increases when people don’t develop strong enough coping skills to deal successfully with the high-risk situation o Feel lack of self-efficacy for resisting the temptation or they allowed the positive benefits (enjoyment of a cigarette) to prompt their decision to perform undesirable behaviour  Lapse would occur followed by the abstinence violation effect – the person becomes upset and self-blaming over the failure to remain abstinent and viewed the lapse as proof that he or she would never be strong enough to resist temptation  May cause people to abandon all hope of change  Harm reduction – prevention strategy that is designed not to eliminate a behaviour, but rather to reduce the harmful effects of a behaviour when it occurs o Ex. Needle and syringe exchange programs to reduce the spread of HIV  Binge drinking – more that four (for women) or five (for men) drinks on three occasions in two weeks Exam question 1: Stress researchers typically refer to the daily hassles that most people encounter, such as being stuck in traffic or having their computer crash, as: A. Primary stressors B. Secondary stressors C. Transactional stressors D. Microstressors D: Microstressor Exam question 2: There is a distinct physiological pattern that emerges when people are exposed to strong and prolonged stress. Selye labeled this response pattern the: A. Transactional stress response (TSR) B. Two-factor theory of stress C. General adaptation syndrome (GAS) D. Chronic stress response (CSR) C: GAS Exam question 3: In terms of susceptibility to stressful events, social support is a _____________. A. Health-enhancing behaviour B. Harm-reduction strategy C. Protective factor D. Resiliency intervention C: Protective factor Exam question 4: According to Kobasa’s hardiness components, the strongest active ingredient in buffering stress, at least for women, is _______________. A. Commitment B. Control C. Cooperation D. Challenge B: Control Exam question 5: Norm and Cliff have both recently been through relationship break ups. Norm decides to go to his favourite bar and talk with his friends about what’s been happening. Cliff, on the other hand, decides to go home and meditate in order to deal with his negative feelings. Based on the information provided, we would say that Norm is involved in seeking social support, while Cliff is involved in _______________. A. Emotion-focused coping B. Problem-focused coping C. Seeking psychological support D. Social-focused coping A: Emotion-focused coping Exam question 6: Catherine has wanted to lose weight for several years. Last week she read the recent literature about obesity and health risks and decided she better get going. Today she went to the market and bought only healthy foods and then she made herself her favourite dinner of fried chicken, biscuits, and gravy, knowing she would not be eating these things in the future. According to the transtheoretical model of behaviour change, Catherine is in the ____________ stage. A. Precontemplation B. Contemplation C. Preparation D. Termination C: Preparation Exam question 7: One of the primary things that differentiates the termination stage from the maintenance and action stages is that: C. Termination stage, the new behaviour has become so automatic it won’t return Exam question 8: Stress management, relaxation training, self-monitoring, and even marital and family counseling were all discussed as elements in the __________________ approach to substance abuse. A. Aversive conditioning B. Harm reduction C. Relapse prevention D. Multimodal treatment D: Multimodal treatment Exam question 9: Most people working with substance abusers define a return to a previously harmful or undesirable behaviour pattern as a ________________. A. Regression B. Relapse C. Lapse D. Slip B: Relapse Psychological Disorders – Chapter 16 3/5/2012 1:39:00 PM The Scope and Nature of Psychological Disorders What is “abnormal”?  How to determine if one is normal vs abnormal o The personal values of a given diagnostician o The expectations of the culture in which a person currently lives o The expectations of the person’s culture of origin o General assumptions about human nature o Statistical deviation from the norm o Harmfulness, suffering, and impairment Distressing to self or others Judgment of Abnormality Dysfunctional for person Deviant: violates social or society norms Abnormal behaviour – behaviour that is personally distressing, personally dysfunctional, and/or so culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive Historical Perspectives on Deviant Behaviour Demenological view – abnormal behaviour is a result of supernatural forces Treatment – trephination – hole in the skull Major Diagnostic Categories:  Anxiety disorders – intense, frequent, or inappropriate anxiety, but no loss of reality contact  Mood (affective) disorders – marked disturbances of mood, including depression and mania (extreme elation and excitement)  Somatoform disorders – physical symptoms, such as blindness, paralysis, or pain, that have no physical basis and are assumed to be caused by psychological factors; also, excessive preoccupations and worry about heath (hypochondriasis)  Dissociative disorders – psychologically caused problems of consciousness and self-identification, including amnesia and multiple personalities  Schizophrenic and other psychotic disorders – severe disorders of thinking, perception, and emotion that involve loss of contact with reality and disordered behaviour  Substance-abuse disorders – personal and social problems associated with the use of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, heroin, or other drugs  Sexual and gender identity disorders – inability to function sexually or enjoy sexuality: deviant sexual behaviours, such as child molestation and arousal by inappropriate objects; strong discomfort with one’s gender accompanied by the desire to be a member of the other sex  Eating disorders  Personality disorders – rigid, stable, and maladaptive personality patterns Theories of abnormality  Medieval Europe – witches were killed – thrown into a lake – impurities float (ie. Witches float)  Greeks – site of mental illness was in the brain (modern)  Freud – psychodynamic theory Vulnerability –stress model – each of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder, given sufficient stress  The vulnerability can have a biological basis or a hormonal factor Stressor – some recent or current event that requires a person to cope Combination of vulnerability and stressor triggers a disorder Vulnerability factors Stressors - Genetic factors - Economic adversity - Biological characteristics - Environmental trauma - Psychological traits - Interpersonal stresses or - Previous maladaptive losses learning - Occupational setbacks or - Low social support demands Current vulnerability Currently experienced stress Psychological disorders Diagnosing Psychological Disorders Classification  Reliability – clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic decisions  Validity – the diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders  DSM-IV-TR – the most widely used diagnostic classification system in North America o For more than 350 diagnostic categories it has a detailed list of observable behaviours that must be present in order for a diagnosis to be made o Allows for the person and their life to be taken into account by representing diagnostic information in 5 dimensions (5 axis)  Axis 1 – the primary diagnosis – represents the person’s primary clinical symptoms  Axis 2 – reflects long-standing personality or developmental disorders  Axis 3 – notes any physical conditions that might be relevant  Axis 4 – the clinician rates the intensity of environmental stressors in the person’s recent life  Axis 5 – reflects the person’s coping resources DSM-V: Integrating categorical and dimensional approaches  Categorical system in which people are placed within specific diagnostic categories o Cons:  Criteria are so detailed and specific that many people (as many as 50%) don’t fit neatly into the categories  Doesn’t provide a way of capturing the severity of the person’s disorder, nor can it capture symptoms that are adaptively important but not sever enough to meet the behavioural criteria for the disorder  Alternative to categorical system: dimensional system – relevant behaviours are rated along a severity measure Personality Trait Dimensions Personality Disorder Negative Emotionality distress, anxiety, depression Schizotypy odd, unusual thinking Borderline Type Disinhibition impulsivity, irresponsibility, acting out Introversion social withdrawal, intimacy Antisocial/ Psychopathic Type avoidance Antagonism callousness, manipulation, hostility/aggression Compulsivity perfectionism, rigidity Critical issues in diagnostic labeling  Once a diagnostic label is attached to a person, it becomes all too easy to accept the label as an accurate description of the individual rather than of the behaviour o It is then difficult to look at the person’s behaviour objectively, without preconceptions about how he or she will act o It is also likely to affect how we interact with that person  Individuals judged to be dangerous to themselves or other ma be involuntarily committed to mental institutions under certain circumstances o They lose some of their civil rights and may be detained indefinitely if their behaviour doesn’t improve Research Foundations  Study by Rosenhan  8 people walked into various mental facilities saying that they heard voices  Their job was to convince the staff that they should be released – they didn’t hear voices anymore  They were all diagnosed with schizophrenia, and upon release were diagnosed with “schizophrenia in remission”  Conclusion: we must be cautious in both using and interpreting the labels we place on others o It is difficult to see what is “normal”  Competency – a defendant’s state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing (not at the time the crime was committed)  Insanity – the presumed state of mind of the defendant at the time the crime was committed o Legal term, not a psychological one o If one gets away with a crime due to insanity and recover, they are sent to prison for the remainder of the sentence  Medical students’ disease – when people read descriptions of disorders, whether physical or psychological, they often see some of those symptoms or characteristics in themselves Anxiety Disorders Anxiety disorders – the frequency and intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them, and anxiety interferes with daily life Anxiety responses have four components:  A subjective-emotional component – feelings of apprehension and tension  A cognitive component – subjective feelings of apprehension, a sense of impending danger, and a feeling of inability to cope  Physiological responses – increased heart rate and blood pressure, muscle tension, etc.  Behavioural responses – avoidance of certain situations and impaired task performance A number of different forms:  Phobic disorders  Generalized anxiety disorders  Panic disorders  Post-traumatic stress disorders  Obsessive-compulsive disorders Incidence – number of new cases that occur during a given period Prevalence – the number of people who have a disorder during a specified period of time Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent of psychological disorders in North America  Found more frequently in females Phobic disorder  Phobias – strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations  Derived from phobos – Greek god of fear  Phobics realize their fear is irrational, but they feel helpless to deal with these fears o They make great effort to avoid the phobic situation or object  Most common phobias: o Agoraphobia – fear of open and public places o Social phobias – fear of situations in which the person might be evaluated and possibly embarrassed o Specific phobias – fears of dogs, snakes, spiders, death, etc.  Animal fears are common among women  Fear of heights are common among men  Phobias can develop at any point in life, but most develop during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood  Once a phobia develops, they rarely go away on their own Generalized anxiety disorder  Generalized anxiety disorder – a chronic state of diffuse, or “free-floating,” anxiety that s not attached to specific situations or objects  Anxiety may last for months on end  Cognitively – expects something bad to happen, but don’t know what  Physically – experiences a mild chronic emergency reaction  Can interfere greatly with daily functioning o Hard to concentrate, make decisions, remember commitments, etc.  Onset tends to occur in childhood and adolescence Panic disorder  Panic disorder – occurs suddenly and unpredictably, and much more intense  Victims may feel like they are dying  Many people with panic attacks develop agoraphobia because of their fear that they will have an attack in public  Appear in late adolescence or early adulthood  Often people have occasional panic attacks – under DSM-IV criteria they would not be diagnosed as having a panic disorder unless they developed an inordinate fear of having future attacks Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)  Two components to OCD: o Cognitive (obsessions) o Behavioural (compulsions)  Obsessions – repetitive and unwelcome thoughts, images, or impulses that invade consciousness, are often abhorrent to the person, and are very difficult to dismiss or control  Compulsions – repetitive behavioural responses that can be resisted only with great difficulty o Often responses to obsessive thoughts and function to reduce the anxiety associated with the thoughts o Difficult to control o Often involve checking things repeatedly, cleaning, and repeating tasks endlessly o If the person doesn’t perform the compulsive act, he or she may experience tremendous anxiety, perhaps even an attack o Strengthened through a process of negative reinforcement because they allow a person to avoid anxiety  Onset typically occurs during the 20s Causal factors in anxiety disorders  Anxiety has biological, psychological, and environmental causes  Biological factors o Genetic factors  Twins have a concordance rate  Agoraphobia is genetically influenced o Anxiety dues to PTSD is primarily in the right hemisphere o GABA - neurotransmitter that reduces neural activity in the amygdala and other brain structures that stimulate arousal  Low GABA levels = more anxiety o Evolutionary theorists believe that biological preparedness makes it easier for us to learn to fear certain stimuli and may explain why phobias seem to centre on certain classes of “primal” stimuli and not on more dangerous modern ones, such as guns and electrical power stations  Psychological factors o Psychodynamic theories (Freud):  Neurotic anxiety – unacceptable impulses threaten to overwhelm the ego’s defences and explode into action  In phobic disorders – neurotic anxiety is displaced onto some external stimulus that has symbolic significance in relation to the underlying conflict  Obsession is symbolically related to the underlying impulse  Compulsion is a way of “taking back” one’s unacceptable urges  Generalized anxiety and panic attacks are thought to occur when one’s defences are not strong enough to control or contain anxiety, but strong enough to hide the underlying conflict o Cognitive factors  Stress the role of maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs in anxiety disorders  Panic attacks are triggered by exaggerated misinterpretations of normal anxiety symptoms  Ex. Heart palpitations is interpreted as heart attack  Behavioural perspective o Anxiety disorders result from emotional conditioning  Ex. Falling from a tree may develop a fear of heights o Phobias can be acquired through observational learning o Once anxiety is learned it can be triggered by cues from the environment or by internal cues  Ex. Phobic reactions = external, panic disorders = internal o Safety signal – a place where the person is unlikely to experience a panic attack  Sociocultural o Culture-bound disorders  Koro – Southeast Asian anxiety disorder  Man fears his penis is going to retract into his abdomen and kill him  Taijin Kyofushu – Japan  Pathologically fearful of offending others by emitting offensive odours, blushing, staring inappropriately, or having a blemish or improper facial expression  Windigo – United States, North American Indians  Fearful of being possessed by monsters who will turn them into homicidal cannibals  Anorexia nervosa – developing countries  Fear of getting fat Eating disorders  Anorexia nervosa – intense fear of being fat and severely restricted food intake to the point of self-starvation o Weigh less that 85% of what they would be expected to weigh
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