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Chapter 11

Chapter 11 – Motivation and Emotion.docx

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Western University
Psychology 1000

Chapter 11Motivation and Emotion Motivation process that influences the direction persistence and vigor of goaldirected behavior PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION 1 Evolutionary Psychology Instinct is an inherited way to behave in a specific and predictable manner when exposed to a particular stimulus o Genetic and universally found in al individualsHowever human instinct theory has faded due to low evidence Scientists today examine the hereditary contribution of motivational characteristics such as social behavior and personality by adoption and twin studiesDrive Theory Of Motivation states that physiological disruptions of homeostasis produce states of internal tension that motivates an organism to behave in ways to reduce this tension homeostasis of homeostasis o Sympathetic causes the gears to go up in action o Parasympathetic conserves actionThis theory applies to many aspects of motivation such as weight body temperature and hungerInternal factors drive organisms into actions whereas incentives are environmental stimuli that pull an organism towards a goal o Ex Better grades is an incentive for studyingThe pull of an external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motive behavior Each person responds different to the same incentive as explained by the expectancy x value theory o Motivationexpectancy x incentive value o Ex James Lenora and Harrison are in the same math class and have similar aptitude James studies hard to get an A whereas the other 2 just want to pass with a CJames believes that the harder you study the more likely you are to receive an A expectancy He values an A highly incentive valueLenora also expects the same thing but an A is not meaningful to herHarrison values an A but he expects the tests to be tricky so he doesnt bother studyingExtrinsic Motivation is driven by external reward or to avoid a punishment o Ex Working out because you dont want to gain weightIntrinsic Motivation is driven by doing the activity for its own sake o Ex Working out because you enjoy physical activity Over justification Hypotheses states that external incentives can decrease intrinsic motivation as play turns into work Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories Psychodynamic theory believes that our behavior if the result of the battle of the unconscious trying to be released and psychological defenses bringing them downExperiments have revealed that along with conscious mental processes our unconscious motives and tensions guide how we act and feel Maslow proposed the need hierarchy in which a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the topSelfactualization is the need to fulfill our potential by achieving everything in the need hierarchy Critics question the reliability of the hierarchy o Why do women starve themselves to be thin Why do people endure war instead of betraying their comradesSelfdetermination Theoy focuses on 3 fundamental psychological needs competence autonomy and relatedness People are most fulfilled when they have achieved these three o Competence reflects how a human needs to master new challenges and skills explains the motivation of exploratory and growthinducing human behavior o Autonomy is the need to be satisfied when people experience their actions as a result of free choice without interferenceo Relatedness refers to our desire to create bonds with others o When people are autonomous they form bonds more easily with others
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