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Chapter 11

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 11 Notes Motivation: A process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour Instinct: An inherited predisposition to behave in a specific and predictable way when exposed to a particular stimulus Homeostasis: A state of internal physiological equilibrium that a body strives to maintain  Can also involve learned behaviours  E.g. We drink and sit in the shade when we’re hot Drive theory: Physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Incentives: Represent environmental stimuli that “pull” and organism toward a goal Expectancy * Value Theory: Goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of a person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal – often called incentive values  Motivation = Expectancy * Incentive value Extrinsic motivation: Performing an activity to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment Intrinsic: Performing an activity for its own sake  Because you find it enjoyable or stimulating Need hierarchy: A progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top  Satisfy lower needs and once these needs are fulfilled we move up Self-Actualization: The need to fulfill our potential  The ultimate human motive Self-determination theory: People are most fulfilled in their lives when they fulfill the needs
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