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Chapter 10

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Psychology 1000

CHAPTER 10: MOTIVATION AND EMOTION > PERSPECTIVES ON MOTIVATION Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary - instinct (also called a fixed action pattern): an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus - modern evolutionary psychologists propose many motives have evolutionary underpinnings expressed through the actions of significance of behaviour is a key to understand motivation Homeostasis and Drive Theory - homeostasis: a state of internal equilibrium that the body strives to maintain - drive theory: physiological disruptions to homeostasis produce drives, internal tension that motivates an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension Incentive and Expectancy Theories - incentives: represent environmental stimuli that “pull” a organism toward a goal - modern incentive theory emphasizes the “pull” of external stimuli and how stimuli with high incentive value can motivate behaviour - expectancy X value theory: proposes that goal directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal, and the value the individual places on that goal (the incentive value)  motivation = expectancy X incentive value - extrinsic motivation: performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid punishment - intrinsic motivation: performing an activity b/c you want to - overjustification hypothesis: giving ppl extrinsic rewards to perform activities they intrinsically enjoy may “overjustify” that behaviour and reduce intrinsic mot. Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories - Freud  much of our behaviour results from a battle between unconscious impulses and our defenses keeping them under control  “dual-instinct” model - Maslow  distinguished between deficiency needs (concerned with physical and social survival), and growth needs (uniquely human and motivate us to develop our potential) - Need hierarchy: a progression of needs containing deficiency needs at the bottom and growth needs at the top - Self actualization: represents the need to fulfill our potential (ultimate human motive) > HUNGER AND WEIGHT REGULATION The Physiology of Hunger - metabolism: the body’s rate of energy consumption, and about 2/3 of our energy usually goes to support the basal metabolism, the resting, continuous work of body cells - “short term” signals start meals by producing hunger and stop food intake by producing satiety (the state in which we no longer feel hungry) - “long term” signals adjust appetite and metabolism to compensate for times when you overeat or eat too little - set point: a standard around which body weight is regulated  homeostatic mechanisms will return us to our original weight if we eat too much or too little 1 Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal - Washburn  swallowed a balloon  found stomach contractions corresponded to subjective feelings of hunger - research indicates that “hunger pangs” can happen even if you don’t have a stomach - when you eat, digestive enzymes break down food into various nutrients  glucose: a simple sugar and major source of immediate usable fuel - most of the glucose is transferred to liver and fat cells and stored - when blood glucose levels decrease, the liver responds by converting stored nutrients back into glucose  produces a drop-rise glucose pattern o usually a drop-rise pattern before experiencing hunger - stomach and intestinal distention are “satiety signals”  walls of these organs stretch as food fills them up, sending nerve signals to the brain - the intestines respond to food by releasing several hormones, called peptides  help terminate a meal  CCK (cholecystokinin) released into blood and stimulates receptors in brain that decrease eating Signals that Regulate General Appetite and Weight - fat cells actively regulate food intake and weight by secreting leptin, a hormone that decreases eating - as we gain fat and secrete more leptin, we tend to eat less b/c leptin increases the potency of satiety factors, making us feel full sooner - ob gene  directs fat cells to produce leptin, but mutations cause a lack of leptin - db gene  mutations cause the brain to be insensitive to leptin o these mutations cause mice to continue eating, but is rare in humans Brain Mechanisms - lateral hypothalamus thought to be “hunger on” center - vertromedial hypothalamus thought to be “hunger off” center o later studies proved that they were not, but lesions caused other effects such as trouble swallowing and digesting - paraventricular nucleus (PVN): a cluster of neurons packed with receptor sites for various transmitters that stimulate or reduce appetite  appears t integrate several different short-term and long-term signals that influence metabolic and digestive processes - neuropetide Y: powerful appetite stimulant  when leptin reaches the hypothalamus, it seems to inhibit the activity of neurons that release neuropeptide Y into the PVN, thereby reducing appetite Psychological Aspects of Hunger - objectification theory: Western culture teaches women to view their bodies as objects - 1 in 5 adolescent and young adult females report being happy with their weight Obesity - a body mass index (BMI) over 30 is considered obese - 33% of adult Canadians are overweight, and 15% are obese - often blamed on a lack of willpower, weak character, etc - hypothesize that obese ppl eat to cope with stress, or react more strongly to food cues - heredity influences our basal metabolic rate and tendency to store energy as either fat or lean tissue  genetic factors account for about 40-70% of body mass variation - over 200 genes have been identified as possible contributors to obesity 2 Dieting and Weight Loss - being fat primes ppl to stay fat by altering body chemistry o eg, obese ppl generally have higher levels of insulin, which increase the conversion of glucose into fat - dieting slows basal metabolism b/c the body responds to food deprivation with decreased energy expenditure Eating Disorders - anorexia nervosa: intense fear of being fat resulting in severe restriction of food intake o weighing less than 85% of what would be expected for their age o 90% are female o causes menstruation to stop, strains the heart, produces bone loss, possible death - bulimia nervosa: overly concerned with becoming fat o binge eat then purge the food o 90% are female o usually normal body weight o can produce gastric problems and badly eroded teeth - anorexics are often perfectionists, and loosing weight becomes a battle of control - bulimics tend to be depressed and anxious, exhibit low impulse control - both have abnormal activity of serotonin and other eating regulating chemicals > ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Motivation for Success - ppl either strive to succeed out of either a motive for success or fear of failure - ppl with high motivation for success focus on mastery of goals and performance- approach goals  usually think about material deeply and show better retention Fear of Failure - have performance-approach goals, but also
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