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Chapter 10

Chapter 10- Intelligence

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Psychology 1000
Shauna Burke

Chapter 10: Intelligence 1 Introduction: • intelligence: ability to acquire knowledge, to think & reason effectively, deal adaptively w/ environment • Sir Francis Galton: eminent people had “inherited mental constitutions” that made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterparts; measured reaction speed, hand strength, sensory acuity; skull size Alfred Binet: 1. mental abilities develop w/ age, 2. rate at which people gain mental • competence is a characteristic of the person & is fairly constant over time - mental age: ex. 8 year old solving 10 year old problems, mental age=10 - intelligence quotient (IQ): IQ=(mental age/chronological age) x 100 - Stanford-Binet: verbal items - > single IQ score - Arthur Otis: WWI;ArmyAlpha- verbal;Army Beta- non-verbal (mazes, puzzles) - Wechsler: WAIS, WISC, WPPSI; used today in NorthAmerica PsychometricApproach: • psychometric: identify & measure abilities that underlie individual differences in performance; measurement-based map of mind - factor analysis: reduces large number of measures to smaller number of clusters, or factors, with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly w/ one another but less highly w/ variables in other clusters; ex. tests 1 & 2=verbal ability, tests 3 & 4=mathematical reasoning; 4 variables - > 2 clusters - Charles Spearmen: verbal acuity cluster & mathematical reasoning cluster=correlated- 0.4-0.5; g-factor: (general intelligence)- performance in mathematical course would depend mainly on general intelligence, but also specific ability to learn math - Thurstone: primary mental abilities- 7 distinct abilities; performance on verbal/mathematical task=influenced more by specific skills represented in relevant cluster than by any g-factor - crystallized intelligence (gc): ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems; ability to retrieve previously learned information & problem solving schemas from long-term memory Chapter 10: Intelligence 2 - fluid intelligence (gf): ability to deal w/ novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience does not provide solution; inductive reasoning & creative problem solving skills; CNS - lifespan: fluid - > crystallized - John B. Carroll: three-stratum theory of cognitive abilities- 3 levels of mental skills (general, broad, narrow); hierarchal (Fig. 10.6, pg. 363) Cognitive-Process Approach: • cognitive-process theory: explore scientific information processing & cognitive processes that underlie intellectual activity • triarchaic theory of intelligence: addresses both psychological processes involved in intelligent behaviour & the diverse forms that intelligence can take • metacomponents: higher order processes used to plan & regulate task performance; problem solving skills inc. formulating hypotheses/strategies, testing them logically, evaluating performance feedback • performance components: actual mental processes used to perform task (perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories/schemas from long term memory, generating responses) • knowledge-acquisition component: learn from experiences, store info in memory, combine new insights w/ previously acquired info 1. Analytical intelligence: academically oriented problem-solving skills measured by traditional intelligence tests 2. Practical intelligence: skills needed to cope w/ everyday demands, to manage oneself & other people effectively 3. Creative intelligence: mental skills needed to deal adaptively w/ novel problems Broader Conceptions of Intelligence: Beyond Mental Competencies • Howard Gardner: 1. Linguistic intelligence: ability to use language well 2. Logical-mathematical intelligence: ability to reason mathematically & logically 3. Visuospatial intelligence: ability to solve spatial problems or to succeed in a field 4. Musical intelligence: ability to perceive pitch & rhythm & to understand, produce music Chapter 10: Intelligence 3 5. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence: ability to control body movements & skillfully manipulate objects 6. Intrapersonal intelligence: ability to understand oneself 7. Interpersonal intelligence: ability to understand & relate well to others 8. Naturalistic intelligence: ability to detect & understand phenomena in natural world - possible 9th: existential intelligence: ability to ponder questions about meaning of one’s existence, life or death • Emotional Intelligence: abilities to read others’emotions accurately, respond to them appropriately, motivate oneself, be aware of one’s emotions, regulate/control one’s emotional responses - Mayer-Salovey-Caruso: perceiving emotions, using emotions to facilitate thought, understanding emotions, managing emotions - people: effective coping strategies, stronger bonds w/ others, greater success in careers, marriage, childrearing; modulate own emotions to avoid strong depression, anger, anxiety, control impulses for immediate gratification Measurement of Intelligence: • separate scores: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, short term memory • as children mature, their general intelligence remains stable, but specific abilities become more differentiated KaufmanAdolescent &Adult Intelligence Test- measure fluid & crystallized abilities • separately • Sternberg TriarchaicAbility Test: 2 forms- analytical, practical, creative; school curricula: optimize learning & school performance • achievement test: how much they have learned so far in lives aptitude test: novel puzzle-like problems that go beyond prior learning, measure potential for • future learning/performance • psychological test: measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept, or construct, based on sample of relevant behaviour in scientifically designed/controlled situation Chapter 10: Intelligence 4 1. Reliability: consistency of measurement - consistency over time - test-retest reliabilit
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