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Chapter 7

Chapter 7: Learning & Adaptation

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
Shauna Burke
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 7- Learning & Adaptation: Role of Experience 1 • learning: experience produces relatively enduring change in organism’s behaviour/capabilities • capabilities: knowing how vs doing • personal adaptation: ever-changing circumstances/environments Habituation & Sensitization: • habituation: decrease in strength of response to repeated stimulus; ex. ticking of clock, pressure of clothing becomes less noticeable as time passes • sensitization: increase in strength of response to repeated stimulus; ex. repeated electric shocks; increase response to potentially dangerous stimulus Classical Conditioning: • organisms learns to associate 2 stimuli; ex. song - > happiness • Ivan Pavlov: measured dogs salivary glands Basic Principles: • Acquisition: period where response is being learned • bell=neutral stimulus (did not cause dogs to salivate initially, did eventually) • unconditioned stimulus (natural, unlearned reflex): food • unconditioned response: salivation • conditioned stimulus (learned): tone • conditioned response: stimulus • forward short-delay pairing: CS (tone) appears 1st & still present when UCS (food) appears • forward trace pairing: tone go on/off, after food is presented • simultaneous pairing: produces less rapid conditioning • backward pairing: does not occur at all • strongest: repeated CS-UCS pairings, UCS is more intense, sequence involves forward pairing, time interval b/w CS & UCS is short Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery: • extinction: CS is presented repeatedly in absence of UCS, CR weakens & eventually disappears • spontaneous recovery: extinguished CR, although weakened, has reappeared, w/o new learning trials; ex. repeated trials=treats anxiety Generalization & Discrimination: Chapter 7- Learning & Adaptation: Role of Experience 2 • stimulus generalization: greater stimulus similarity, greater chance CR will occur - ex. animal responds to rustling bushes; some will be false alarms • discrimination: distinguish irrelevant sounds from those that may signal danger - ex. animal doesn’t get scared at every noise=distinguishes; would exhaust itself - ex. mother bit by big dogs=fear, son pleads for dog, get small dog, mother=okay, son complains High-Order Conditioning: • neutral stimulus becomes CS after being paired w/ already established CR - ex. present black square just prior to sounding of tone, but not any food • expands influence of conditioned stimuli, can affect what we come to value, fear, dislike - ex. political candidates try to make us like them to get elected Acquiring & Overcoming Fear: • behaviourists challenge Freudian psychoanalytical theory - ex. snake=fear triggering CS, pairing w/ aversive UCS (injury) & stimulus generalization - Watson & Rayner (1920): condition LittleAlbert to fear rats w/ loud noises, becomes scared of furry, white objects (santa’s beard, rabbits) • humans/mammals become afraid of neutral stimuli paired w/ electric shock • behavioural treatments=effective psychotherapies for phobias; phobias can be unlearned • exposure therapy: expose phobic patient to feared stimulus (CS) without any UCS, allows extinction to occur • systematic desensitization: patient learns muscular relaxation techniques, gradually exposed to fear provoking stimulus • flooding: immediately exposes patient to phobic stimulus ConditionedAttraction &Aversion: • aversion therapy: condition aversion (repulsion) to stimulus that triggers unwanted behaviour by pairing it w/ noxious UCS; yield short term changes; ex. reducing alcoholic's consumption by consuming drug before drinking that triggers extreme nausea • play part in attitude formation- negative or positive responses; ex. ads w/ cute animals, attractive people • create unfavourable attitudes towards CS; paring CS w/ negative/unpleasant UCS Chapter 7- Learning & Adaptation: Role of Experience 3 - ex. Moore (1982): school children paired w/ concepts of smoking, drinking, drug use=negative connotations • allergic reaction: immune system overreacts & releases too many antibodies to combat allergen - conditioned: reduce through extinction trials Operant Conditioning: Learning Through Consequences • not elicited responses, but emitted (voluntary) responses Thorndike’s Law of Effect: • (1898)- how animals learn to solve problems; cat in box, eventually learned lever opened door • result: w/ trial & error, gradually eliminated responses that failed to open door, became more likely to perform actions that worked (instrumental learning) • law of effect: in situation, a response followed a “satisfying” consequence will become more likely to occur Skinner’s Analysis of Operant Conditioning: • operant behaviour: organism operates on its environment in some way, emits responses to produce certain consequences • operant conditioning: responses the produce favourable consequences=repeated, unfavourable=less likely to occur • Skinner box: record rat’s behaviour on cumulative recorder, press more frequently over time reinforcement: response strengthened by outcome that follows it; ex. food pellets (reinforcer) • • punishment: response weakened by outcome that follows; ex. electric shock by lever (punisher) ABCs of Operant Conditioning: • A) antecedent- are present, ex. IF I say sit, • B) behaviour- emitted, ex.AND my dog sits, • C) consequence- will occur, ex. THEN she gets treat • b/w A& B, B & C=contingencies- receiving food is contingent on response of sitting • chalk on board=classical (raising chalk) & operant (signal to put fingers in ear) conditioning Antecedent Conditions: Identifying When To Respond Chapter 7- Learning & Adaptation: Role of Experience 4 • Discriminative Stimulus: signal that particular response will now produce certain consequences; ex. teacher raising hand to write on chalk board - > signals to put fingers in ear other ex. food on plate, classroom bells, words spoken to us • Consequences: Determining How To Respond • Positive Reinforcement: response strengthened by subsequent presentation of stimulus (positive reinforcer); ex. food, drink, comforting physical contact; reward • Negative Reinforcement: response strengthened by subsequent removal or avoidance of stimulus (negative reinforcer); ex. flushing toilet=scalding shower water, water negatively reinforces response of backing away as you hear flush • Operant Extinction: weakening/eventual disappearance of response b/c no longer reinforced; ex. if pressing lever no longer results in food pellets, rat will stop pressing lever - resistance to extinction: degree to which non-reinforced responses persist; ex. people soliciting charitable donations do not stop just b/c people say no - good alternative to punishment; reducing undesirable behaviours - time out: short time for “time out from positive reinforcement” - ex. Pascal misbehaves, craves attention, mother stops giving attention/gives time outs Positive Punishment: applying aversive stimuli (shock, slap); response weakened by • presentation of stimulus; ex. girl wears shirt, friends say “nice” w/ dislike expression, girl stops wearing shirt - produces rapid results; ex. shock to stop self-destruction/injury - limitations: - > suppresses behaviour but does not cause organism to forget how to make response, ex. not swearing around parents - > arouses negative emotions (fear, anger), produces dislike for person delivering punishment - > control by aggression • Negative Punishment: response weakened by subsequent removal of stimulus (response cost) - ex. being grounded- removal of privileges (Pascal- watching t.v.) - advantages (over positive): Chapter 7- Learning & Adaptation: Role of Experience 5 - > less likely to create strong fear/hatred of punishing agent - > less physical aggression=no imitation of this behaviour Primary & secondary Consequences: • primary: stimuli (food, water) organism naturally find reinforcing b/c satisfies biological needs • secondary: how behaviour depends on combo of classical & operant conditioning; ex. grades, money, performance - cat destroys plants in home, owner sprays w/ water mister; shakes water & sternly says “no” & cat eventually stops Immediate vs Delayed Consequence: • delay of gratification: ability to forego immediate smaller reward for delayed but more satisfying outcome; ex. $100/month (choose), $200/year at 1 time - less delay gratification= more difficulty coping w/ stress & frustration during adolescence; inability=chronic drinking, smoking, criminal acts - ex. drug use: gratifying consequences override delayed benefits (health, life expectancy) - ex. smoking=60000 puffs/year - > lot of negative reinforcement Shaping & Chaining: Taking One StepAtATime • shaping: reinforcing successive approximations toward final response; through trial & error - ex. standing near lever, raising front paw, touching lever, depressing lever; reduces time - ex. Sami doesn’t like speaking; in class: change voice slowly from 40-70 decibels w/ rewards; from words - > sentences - > etc. • chaining: develop sequence of responses by reinforcing each response w/ opportunity to perform next response - ex. rat bumps into bell, turns on light, runs away pressing lever accidentally, will learn to do this gradually - ex. musical, athletic, academic skills Generalization & Discrimination: Chapter 7- Learning & Adaptation: Role of Experience 6 • generalization: operant response occurs to new antecedent stimulus/situation that is similar to original tone; ex. kid avoids stove top burners discrimination: operant response will occur to one antecedent stimulus but not to another; ex. • kid raids cookie jar when parents aren’t around, board busses w/ different symbols - examine perceptual/cognitive abilities of infants/nonhuman species - operant discrimination training: making response (pressing lever) when discriminative stimulus is present (light is on) produces food or other positive consequence Schedules of Reinforcement: • strong & predictable effects on learning, extinction, performance • continuous reinforcement schedule: every response of particular type is reinforced, ex. every time step on lever, food pellets result • partial reinforcement schedule: only some responses are reinforced 1. ratio vs interval: - ratio: certain percentage of responses are reinforced; ex. 50% key factor=# of correct responses; workplace=pay for performance) - interval: certain amount of time mus
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