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Psychology 1000 (1,620)
Terry Biggs (193)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes CHAPTER 1 – Psychology: The Science of Behaviour  Psychology: scientific study of behaviour and the factors that influence it  Kinds of behaviours studied: o Thoughts o Feelings o Emotions o Physiological reactions Psychology as a Basic Applied Science  Basic Research: quest for knowledge for its own sake o Goals: describe how ppl behave and identify factors that influence or cause a behaviour o Carried out in laboratory or real world settings  Applied Research: designed to solve specific practical problems o Goals: uses principle discovered through basic research to solve practical problems  Robbers Cave Study o Two groups of boys were formed called the Eagles and Rattlers o Got along until the experimenters put them through competitive contests in which hostility grew between the two o Got eliminated by putting them into situation where they had to cooperate and work together (i.e. fixing the water supply system) o Showed that competition could create hostility and conflicts and be decreased by making the groups dependant on one another so that they need to cooperate  Jigsaw Program: requires children to cooperate with one another rather than compete against each other in order for any of them to succeed o Requires multi racial group of children (5 or 6) who need to cooperate to meet a common goal Goals of Psychology 1 Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes 1. Describe how ppl and other animals behave 2. Explain and understand the causes of these behaviours 3. Predict how ppl and animals will behave under certain conditions 4. Influence or control behaviour thru knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare  Linked the following manner: o Understand causes of behaviour and know when the factors are present or absent  predict when the behaviour will occur o Cause controlled = behaviour controlled Perspective on Behaviour: Guides to Understanding and Discovery  Three levels of analysis: o Biological o Psychological o Environmental The Importance of Perspectives  Perspectives: vantage points for analyzing behaviour and its biological, psychological and environmental causes  6 major perspectives: o Biological o Cognitive o Psychodynamic o Behavioural o Humanistic o Sociocultural The Biological Perspective: Brain, Genes and Behaviour  Mind- Body Dualism: belief that the mind is a spiritual entity not subject to the physical laws that govern the body 2 Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes  Monism: believes that the mind isn’t a separate entity (mind and body are one)  Biological Perspective: physical side of human nature o 3 factors: thought, emotion and action Discovery of Brain – Behaviour Relations  Luigi Galvani discovered “nervous energy”  Researchers at University of Berlin discovered that stimulation of specific areas on surface of brain resulted in movements of particular muscles in the body  Karl Lashley’s approach was to create lesions (damage) in specific brain regions and study the effects on learning and memory abilities on animals  1929 – electroencephalogram allowed researchers to measure the electrical activity of large areas of the brain through electrodes attached to the scalp  Tiny microelectrodes permit recording of electrical activities of brain cells  Electron microscopes enable to study formerly invisible brain structures Evolution and Behaviour : From Darwin to Evolutionary Psychology  Natural Selection: any inheritable characteristic that increases the likelihood of survival will be maintained because they will be more likely to survive and reproduce  Darwin didn’t know the mechanism for the passing on of characteristics until Gregor Mendel discovered genes  Evolutionary Psychology: focuses on the role of evolution in the development of behaviour and mental mechanisms  Sociobiology: complex social behaviours are also built into the human species as products of evolution  Social behaviours in men: aggression, competition and dominance o In females: cooperative and nurturers  Sociobiologists believe that one’s genetic survival (i.e. transmission of one’s genes) is more important than physical survival Behaviour Genetics 3 Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes  Behaviour Genetics: study of how behavioural tendencies are influenced by genetic factors  Animals can be bred not only for physical traits but behavioural traits as well  Identical twins result from a split fertilized egg  Fraternal twins result from two different fertilized eggs  Genetic factors also implicated in certain brain dysfunctions that result in disturbed behaviour The Cognitive Perspective: The Thinking Human  Cognitive Perspective: views humans as information processors and problem solvers whose actions are governed by thought and planning Origins of the Cognitive Perspective  Wilhelm Wundt and his student Edward Titchener’s approach was structuralism o Structuralism: analysis of the mind in terms of its basic elements  Structuralists study sensations through introspection o Introspection: method of looking within and verbally reporting on immediate experiences  Functionalsim: adapting behaviour to help organisms respond successfully to their environment and survive o no longer exists as a formal school of thought in psychology  “gestalt” (german) = whole / organization  Gestalt Psychology: concerned with how elements of experience are organized into two wholes  Wolfgang Kohler defined insight o Insight: sudden perception of a useful relationship or solution to a problem  Jean Piaget concluded that specific stages of cognitive development unfold naturally as children mature and these abilities cannot be explained by past experiences 4 Psychology 1000 Chapter 1 Notes  Distress and maladaptive behaviour caused by the ways we think about those situations Modern Cognitive Science  Artificial Intelligence: develops computer models of complex human thought, reasoning and problem solving  Donald Hebb proposed a hypothetical brain structure he called a cell assembly to explain how repeated usage results in better performance of that task o Cell Assembly: a group of brain cells whose connections are assumed to be strengthened with repeated usage Social Constructivism  Social Constructivism: the position that ppl construct their reality and beliefs through their cognitions The Psychodynamic Perspective: The Forces Within  Psychodynamic Perspective: focuses on inner personality dynamics including the role of unconscious impulses and defences in understanding behaviour Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Great Challenge  Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis o Psychoanalysis: analysis of internal unconscious psychological forces  Focused his attention on treatment of hysteria o Hysteria: psychological disorder in which physical symptoms (i.e. blindness, pain or paralysis) developed without an apparent cause  Disorder specific to women since “hystera “ (greek) = womb  Female patients revealed painful and long-forgotten sexual abuse experiences as a child  Since medical and scientific community threatened to ruin his career, he concluded that these sexual experiences never occurred o Females prompted to created these fantasies by an unsatisfied sexual
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