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Chapter 10

Chapter 10: Intelligence

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Psychology 1000
Terry Biggs

Chapter 10 Intelligencey Intelligence is the ability to acquire knowledge to think and reason effectively and to deal adaptively with the environmentIntelligence in Historical Perspective y Contributions of Sir Francis Galton and Alfred Binet were key in the study and measurement of mental skills and set the stage for later attempts to measure intelligence and discover its causes Sir Francis Galton Quantifying Mental Abilityy Through the study of family trees Galton shows that eminence and genius seemed to occur within certain familiesy His research convinced him that eminent people had inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking than their less successful counterpartsy Galton then attempted to demonstrate a biological basis for eminence by showing that people who were more socially and occupationally successful would also perform better on a variety of laboratory tasks that measure the efficiency of the nervous systemAlfred Binets Mental Tests y Binet made two assumptions about intelligenceMental abilities develop with ageThe rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over timey The concept of mental age the mental level or age at which a child is performing as determined by a standardized interview was expanded by German psychologist William Stern to provide a relative score for people of different chronological ages y Sterns intelligence quotient IQ was the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100IQmental age chronological age x 100y However todays IQ tests provide a score that is not a quotient at all but instead one that is based on a persons performance relative to the scores of other people the same age with a score of 100 corresponding to the average performance of that age groupBinets Legacy An IntelligenceTesting Industry Emerges y Lewis Terman improved the relevance of Binets test to American culturey The revised test became known as the StandfordBinet test and contained mostly verbal items and yielded a single IQ scorey Two years after psychologist David Wechsler developed a major competitor to the StandfordBinet test as he believed that intelligence should be measured as a group of distinct but related verbal and nonverbal abilitiesy In 1939 the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS appeared followed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC in 1955
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