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Chapter 13

Psych 1000 Chapter 13 Review Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 1000
Professor
Wolfe/ Quinlan

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Chapter 13 – Behaviour in a Social Context Social Thinking and Perception  Attribution: Perceiving the Causes of Behaviour o Attributions – judgments about the causes of behaviour and outcomes o Fritz Heider maintained that attempts to understand behaviour involve different types of attribution  Personal attribution – people’s behaviour is caused by their characteristics  Situational attribution – aspects of the situation cause behaviour o Three types of information determine attribution we make  Consistency (is the decision made always consistent)  Distinctiveness (is the decision distinct to a situation, or often made)  Consensus (how do other people respond) o Fundamental attribution error – tendency to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining other’s behaviour o Self-serving bias – making relatively more personal attributions for successes and more situational attributions for failure  Forming and Maintaining Perceptions o Primacy effect – tendency to attach more importance to the initial information that we learn about a person o Stereotype – generalized beliefs about a group or category of people (type of schema) o Self-fulfilling prophecy – occurs when people’s erroneous expectations lead them to act toward others in a way that brings about the expected behaviours, thereby confirming the original impression  Attitudes and Attitude Change o Attitude – a positive or negative evaluative reaction toward a stimulus  Come from conditioning, social learning, and direct experience  Theory of planned behaviour – intention to engage in a behaviour is strongest when we have a positive attitude toward that behaviour, when perceptions of what others think support our attitudes, and when we believe the behaviour is under our control o Theory of cognitive dissonance – people strive for consistency in their cognitions  If a person had two contradicting cognitions, they experience an uncomfortable state of tension called cognitive dissonance, and reduce it by changing or adding a cognition  It is possible to change someone’s attitude by inducing them to engage in counterattitudinal behaviours (behaviour that contradicts one’s attitude) o Self-perception theory – the theory that we make inferences about our own attitudes by observing how we behave o Persuasion involves a communicator who delivers a message through a channel to an audience within a surrounding context  The communicator  Communicator credibility (how believable communicator is) is key to effective persuasion  The message  More effective to present both sides of argument, and refute opposing side  More effective to present moderate argument as opposed to extreme  Fear arousal works best when message evokes moderate fear  The audience  Central route to persuasion – occurs when people think carefully about the message and are influenced because they find arguments compelling  Peripheral route to persuasion – occurs when people do not scrutinize the message, but are influenced mostly by other factors, such as communicator attractiveness or emotional appeal Social Influence  The Mere Presence of Others o Studies found that performance can be enhanced or diminished by the presence of others  A difficult situation will lead to a dominant response of errors  A simple or well-learned situation will lead to a dominant response of enhanced performance o Social facilitation – an increased tendency to perform one’s dominant response in the mere presence of others  Social Norms o Social norms – shared expectations about how people should think, feel, and behave o Social role – a set of norms that characterizes how people in a given social position ought to behave  Conformity and Obedience o Norms can only influence behaviour if people conform to them o Two types of conformity:  Informational social influence – following the opinions or behaviours of other people because we believe they have accurate knowledge and what they are doing is “right”  Normative social influence – conformity motivated by gaining social acceptance and avoiding social rejection o Factors that affect conformity:  Group size – conformity increases to a point with increases in group size, but then levels off  Presence of a dissenter – when one of the group disagrees, conformity of another individual is greatly reduced o Factors that influence destructive obedience:  Remoteness of the victim – greater obedience when learner is out of sight  Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure – greater obedience when the figure was close and perceived as legitimate  Cog in a wheel – obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work  Personal characteristics – personal characteristics of individuals rarely influence obedience o Various compliance techniques:  Norm of reciprocity – the expectation that when others treat you well, we should respond in kind  Door-in-the-face technique – a persuader makes a large request, expecting rejection, and then presents a smaller request  Foot-in-the-door technique – a persuader gets you to comply with a small request first and later presents a larger request  Lowballing – a persuader gets you to commit an action and then, before you actually perform the behaviour, increases the cost of the behaviour  Crowd Behaviour and Deindividuation o Deindividuation – a loss of individuality that leads to disinhibited behaviour  Caused by anonymity to outsiders, where the conditions make an individual less identifiable to people outside the group  Group Influences on Performance and Decision Making o Social loafing – the tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group
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