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Chapter 12

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Psychology 1000

Chapter 12: Personality  What is Personality? -distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that characterize a person’s responses to life situations -components of identity, perceived internal cause, and perceive organization and structure contribute to one’s personality  Psychodynamic Perspective -Freud worked with Jean Charcot, who was dealing with conversion hysteria (paralysis and blindness appear suddenly without reason) -Freud was convinced these symptoms were because of painful memories and feeling that were repressed; when patients were able to re-experience their painful memories, their symptoms vanished -unconscious part of mind has a great influence on behaviour -used hypnosis, free association, and dream analysis  Psychic Energy and Mental Events -Freud stated that instinctual drives generate psychic energy (powers the mind and constantly presses for either direct/indirect release) -mental events consisted of 3 things: 1. Conscious – mental events we are aware of 2. Preconscious – contains memories, thoughts, feelings, and images that we are unaware of but can easily recall in consciousness 3. Unconscious – dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, and impulses that lies beyond awareness  Structure of Personality -Freud divided personality into 3 parts: 1. Id – exists within unconscious mind; innermost core of personality and operates according to the pleasure principle and seeks immediate gratification, regardless of rational thought and reality 2. Ego – functions at conscious level; operates according to the reality principle and test reality to decide when and under what conditions the id can safely discharge its impulses and needs 3. Superego – moral arm of personality; keeps control of id (especially sexual drives) and blocks gratification; right vs. wrong  Conflict, Anxiety, and Desire -when ego confronts impulses from the id that are out of hand and uncontrollable, anxiety occurs and must be dealt with properly -defence mechanisms deny or distort reality (ego prevents expression of anxiety-arousing impulses or expresses them in disguised forms) -types of defence mechanisms: 1. Repression – ego uses energy to prevent anxiety-around impulses from entering consciousness 2. Sublimation – anxiety-arousing impulses expressed as socially desired behaviours 3. Denial – refusing to acknowledge anxiety-arousing impulses 4. Displacement – unacceptable/dangerous impulse is repressed, then expressed onto a safer substitute 5. Intellectualization – emotion connected with anxiety-arousing event is repressed, then dealt with as an intellectualizing event 6. Projection – unacceptable impulse repressed, then projected onto other people 7. Rationalization – person constructs false explanation for anxiety-arousing behaviour that has occurred already 8. Reaction Formation – anxiety-arousing impulse repressed, then psych energy finds release in an exaggerated expression of the opposite behaviour  Psychosexual Development -erogenous zones (specific pleasure-sensitive areas) -fixation (state of arrested psychosexual development in which instincts are focused on a particular psychic theme) Stage Age Erogenous Zone Key Task Oral 0-2 Mouth Weaning Anal 2-3 Anus Toilet Training Phallic 4-6 Genitals Resolving Oedipus Complex Latency 7-puberty None Developing social relationships Genital puberty on Genitals Developing mature social and sexual relatioships  Research on Psychoanalytic Theory -Freud opposed experimental research because the complex phenomena he had identified could not be studied under controlled conditions -modern psychology do not believe clinical observations are sufficient proof of a theory, thought they acknowledge the difficulty of studying psychoanalytic concepts under controlled laboratory conditions -major shortcoming is that its concepts are ambiguous and difficult to operationally define and measure  Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory -hard to test; explains too much to allow clear-cut behavioural predictions -emphasis on unconscious was scorned; non-conscious mental and emotional phenomena do occur and can powerfully affect our behaviour -non-conscious mental events (such as automatic processing) are different from the phenomena that Freud placed in the unconscious mind  Freud’s Legacy: Neoanalytic and Object Relations Approaches -neoanalysts (psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud’s thinking and developed their own theories); believed that Freud did not emphasize on social and cultural factors and laid too much emphasis on events of childhood -Adler insisted humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest (desire to advance welfare of others) and strive for superiority (inferiority complex: drives people to compensate for real/imagined defects in themselves) -Jung developed analytic psychology; believed in a personal unconscious based on life experiences and collective unconscious that consists of memories accumulated throughout history of the human race; archetypes (inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways) -object relations theorists focused on images/mental representations that people form themselves and other people as a result of early experience with caregivers  Humanistic Perspective -self actualization (total realization of one’s human potential)  Carl Rogers’s Self Theory -believed behaviour is not a reaction to unconscious conflicts, but to our immediate conscious experience of self and environment -self (organized and consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself) -self consistency (absence of conflict among self-perceptions) -congruence (consistency between self-perceptions and experience) -the more inflexible people’s self-concepts are, the less open they will be to their experience and the more maladjusted they will become  The Need for Positive Regard -need for positive regard (acceptance and sympathy from others) -unconditional positive regard (communicational attitude of total and unconditional acceptance of another person that conveys the person’s worth) -conditions of worth (internalized standards of self-worth fostered by conditional positive regard from others)  Fully Functioning Persons -defined as someone who does not hide behind a mask; feel a sense of inner freedom, self- determination, and choice in the direction of their growth -not afraid of behaving spontaneously, freely, and creatively  Research on the Self -self esteem (how positively/negatively we feel about ourselves) is related to many positive behaviours and life outcomes -children develop higher self esteem when parents communication unconditional acceptance and love, establish clear guidelines for behaviour, and reinforce compliance while giving the child freedom to make decisions and express opinions within those guidelines -failure when the goal is to enhance self esteem is more damaging than a failure when the goal is to master a task  Self-Verific
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