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CH 10 Cages and Education.doc

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Sociology 2239
Alissa Mazar

CH 10- CAGE(s) and Education Intro - the Educational Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO)- began mandatory testing of students in grade 3, 6, and 9 to evaluate students ability in reading, writing, and mathematics - the C.D. Howe Institute argues that 40% of the variation in school test scores is related to socio-economic factors, and accounts for this in its calculations - yet parents with economic means move to areas where they believe schools are academically stronger, exacerbating inequities between schools and contributing to the growing divide - in a society that strongly promotes an individualistic ethos of success and failure, education is seen as an opportunity for the talented and motivated individual to move up the social ladder - Canadians dont like to acknowledge that the education system a place where societal inequalities are reproduced and where privileged groups solidify and maintain their advantages - chances of obtaining a lucrative degree that will result in substantial labour- market returns are significantly affected by ones class, race or ethnicity, and age - historical period in which we live also significantly shapes our chances for a higher education - societal demands for an educated workforce have made a high school education almost a compulsory requirement for sustained labour-force participation - location matters for education attainment and opportunities- Newfoundland and Labrador has the lowest proportion of adults aged 25-64 with a university degree (14%) and the highest proportion with less than a high school diploma (26%) - important to note that migration and mobility also affect the educational attainment of residents- 22% of adults in Alberta aged 25-64 have a university degree; however Alberta also had the largest new inflow of post-secondary graduates from other provinces - streaming is the educational practice of grouping and teaching children according to different levels of ability, either informally in a classroom or more formally within secondary educational programs (i.e. basic or advanced pathways) - the streaming of high school students into different educational pathways has been found to often disadvantage or close off career options for students whose parents have lower educational attainment - according to Bourdieu, parents with more educational resources have richer reserves of cultural capital - cultural capital, which is derived mostly from education, reflects middle- and upper-class values, attitudes, and beliefs that people hold about various aspects of social life - related concept of social capital concerns the information and social connections that are available to individuals i.e. the possession of knowledge about the workings of the educational system, access to special education - a look at the history of education in Canada shows that achieving societal equality was not an overriding goal of the educational system at the outset - early educational aims for the Canadian masses included the desire to create agreeable and obedient workers and a contented working class - children were not encouraged to strive beyond their social roots, and the virtues of leading a simple and hard-working life were praised in poems and fables - early educational aims of Canadian missionaries were structured by racist, sexist, and class-based ideologies - Aboriginal men and women were taught different skills in order to reproduce European gendered societal patterns - goal was to produce a new and subordinate working class that would benefit the colonizers - strong theme of Aboriginal inferiority was woven through religious and educational teachings - - Box 10.1 Graphic List of Abuse to Settle Claims: Complex System of Determining Payment Seen as Necessary to Manage Huge Numbers of Complaints by Former Residential-School Students - court-ordered independent program used to settle serious sexual and physical abuse claims by former residential-school students- majority of which were aboriginals who were children or teens when they were assaulted - expected to process about 12 500 claimants by 2013 - the more abuse a person can claim, along with providing supporting evidence of subsequent harm, such as a forced abortion, substance-abuse problems, or lost income, the higher the rate of financial compensation that person is entitled to from the federal government - maximum amount is $245 000 however if a person can prove income loss, the final amount can be increased up to $430 000 - the new program, the Independent Assessment Process, is supervised by nine provincial and territorial courts - part of a larger historic $4 billion residential-schools settlement agreement that came into effect last fall (as of date printed) - the settlement included a lump-sum payment for all surviving former residential students, approximately 80 000 people, average payment about $28 000 - most of the schools involved were church-run but supported financially by the Canadian gov from the 1870s-1970s - Mr Cockney was born in a camp east of Tuktoyaktuk, small community 350km north of the Arctic circle - when he was 5 (1961) he was abducted from his parents, flown to Gollier Hall (Catholic-run residential school in Inuvik) along with his brother Rex (7 yrs) and sister Regina (6 yrs) - next 12 years were largely a nightmare of constant physical, sexual and mental abuse for Mr Cockney - he said many of his ex-classmates also struggled through the years, dozens either killing themselves or turning to substance abuse to suppress the pain of the abuse and loss of language and culture - these court hearings have a standard of proof similar to a civil proceeding - - $54 000- $85 000 allowed for: - repeated, persistent incidents of anal or vaginal intercourse - repeated, persistent incidents of anal/vaginal penetration with an object - $40 000- $55 000 allowed for: - one or more incidents of anal or vaginal intercourse - repeated, persistent incidents of oral intercourse - one or more incidents of anal/vaginal penetration with an object - $25 000- $45 000 allowed for: - one or more incidents or oral intercourse - one or more incidents of digital anal/vaginal penetration - one or more incidents of attempted anal/vaginal penetration (excluding attempted digital penetration) - repeated, persistent incidents of masturbation - $11 000- $24 000 allowed for: - one or more physical assaults causing a physical injury that led to or should have led to hospitalization/serious medical treatment; permanent long-term physical injury, impairment or disfigurement; loss of consciousness; broken bones; or a serious but temporary incapacitation such that bed rest or infirmary care of several days was required i.e. whipping, burning - one or more incidents of simulated intercourse - one or more incidents of masturbation - repeated, persistent fondling under clothing - $7500- $10 000 allowed for: - one or more incidents of fondling or kissing - nude photographs taken of the claimant - the act of an adult employee or other adult lawfully on the premises exposing themselves - any touching of a student, including touching with an object, by an adult employee or other adult lawfully on the premises which exceeds recognized parental contact and violates the sexual integrity of the student - $7500- $24 000 allowed for: - being singled out for physical abuse by an adult employee or other adult lawfully on the premises which was grossly excessive in duration and frequency and which caused psychological consequential harms - any other wrongful act committed by an adult employee or other adult lawfully on the premises which is proven to have caused psychological consequential harms Focusing on Class: Historical Notes and Existing Patterns - streaming or filtering occurs before some children ever enter a school building - within public schools, some children relegated to learning basic skills, while
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