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Sociology 2152A/B

Sociology ReviewLecture BookChapter 1IntroductionSociology to explain why members of some groups behave differently than members of other groupsGroups can include whole societies that share a territory and way of life Canada smaller groups that share the same status doctors trade unionists and even social categories individuals who may not see themselves as forming social groups at all but who share some social characteristic in common having children 6 ftAsks questions such as why the US as a higher crime rate than Canada why there are fewer than men in certain professionsPeople make choices however social environments which may be different in different groups cannot be ignored Social Facts coined by French sociologist Emile Durkheim relating it to causes for suicide they point to the social or group level explanations of behaviour such as ethnicity gender place of residence and marital statusThey are shared and thus unlike psychological factors which emphasize individual internal processes such as drives and motivesHe observed that men Protestants the older and unmarried have higher suicide rates due in part to the relative social isolation they experienced Egoistic suicide occur because of a lack of social tiesAltruistic suicide excessively strong social ties suicide bombersAnomicsuicide societies with insufficient regulations may arise in extensiverapid social change Individuals may experience feelings of unpredictabilitywithout limitsFatalistic suicide too many rules and too few options individuals may feel trapped suicide being the only way outModern Origins and VarietiesFrench expanded potential fro democracyand Industrial Revolution led to new economy growth of tradescitiesnew organization of work kindled sociologys modern development by causing upheavals in traditional European life Due to revolutions relatively small simple and rural societies based on family and tradition gave way to a more urbanized heterogeneous dynamic societies marked by increasing conflict and growing social problemsScientific explanations products of the Enlightenment were increasingly supplanting religion and theological explanations of natural phenomena Auguste Comte saw sociology as both a religion and a science Making sociologists the priests do guide societies through turbulent times and heal their social problems This new discipline seemed necessary and thus the modern science of sociology was born Durkheim argued that society is based on consensus and cooperation Various segments of society work for the benefit of society as a whole Karl Max saw society as made up of individuals and groups held together by the strongest members who use their power to coerce the weaker members in to submission Functionalism macroFunction social arrangements exist because they somehow benefit society It points to the important of each part of society for the functioning and health of the whole ie prostitutionIf something persists in society in spite of widespread disapproval it must serve a function Equilibrium a stability based on a balance among parts and consensus is seen as the natural state of a societyDysfunctions occur from time to time but the society will return to equilibriumDevelopment social change is seen as gradual and usually in the direction of both greater differentiation the development of new social forms and functional integrationThrough time society adapts to its problems and is improved in the process Conflict Theory macroSuggests that power not functional interdependence holds a society together that conflict not harmony is a societys natural state and that revolutions and radical upheavals not gradual development fuel social change and improvementMajor source of social conflict is inequality and it must be eradicated Society is viewed as composed of groups acting competitively rather and cooperatively exploiting and being exploited rather than each fulfilling a function for the whole Marxism contemporary society is held together by capitalist domination which pits the proletariat workers against the bourgeoisie owners of capital in a constant struggle for the profit from labour Relative calm in societies due to the fact that capitalists coercion of the proletariat and the workers lack of awareness of their own exploitation Revolution is need for workers to hope to change capitalistdominated structure of society Symbolic Interactionism micro George Herbert MeadPrefer to begin their analysis with individuals and their interactions rather than groups or societies View individuals as active agents with goals objectives purposes intentions motives or utility functions as well as knowledge and expectations about which kinds of behaviours are most likely to achieve them When conducting research emphasize the subjective over the objectiveBehaviour and attitudes can depend upon how individuals perceive define or construct their social world Ie snow can bring happiness fear and romanceHumans thinks and interact on the basis of information encoded in stings of symbols such as sentences in a language Blumer suggests that humans act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them meanings that arise out of social interaction with others and are modified though an interpretive processHomans according to the learning theory individuals learn in a variety of ways Ie by association through reward and punishment Whom you interact with is the source of most of the rewards and punishments that people experienceThey mutually shape each others behaviour which socializes people and they acquire a variety of social identities When you add the observation of models direct instruction and additional forms of social learning to this you get a social theory behaviour
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