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Sociology 2239 Chapter Notes -Allbusiness.Com, Afrocentrism, Quartile

Course Code
SOC 2239
Alissa Mazar

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CH 10- CAGE(s) and Education
-the Educational Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO)- began mandatory
testing of students in grade 3, 6, and 9 to evaluate student’s ability in reading,
writing, and mathematics
-the C.D. Howe Institute argues that 40% of the variation in school test scores is
related to socio-economic factors, and accounts for this in its calculations
-yet parents with economic means move to areas where they believe schools
are academically stronger, exacerbating inequities between schools and
contributing to the growing divide
-in a society that strongly promotes an individualistic ethos of success and
failure, education is seen as an opportunity for the talented and motivated
individual to move up the social ladder
-Canadians don’t like to acknowledge that the education system a place where
societal inequalities are reproduced and where privileged groups solidify and
maintain their advantages
-chances of obtaining a lucrative degree that will result in substantial labour-
market returns are significantly affected by one’s class, race or ethnicity, and age
-historical period in which we live also significantly shapes our chances for a
higher education
-societal demands for an educated workforce have made a high school
education almost a compulsory requirement for sustained labour-force
-location matters for education attainment and opportunities- Newfoundland and
Labrador has the lowest proportion of adults aged 25-64 with a university degree
(14%) and the highest proportion with less than a high school diploma (26%)
-important to note that migration and mobility also affect the educational
attainment of residents- 22% of adults in Alberta aged 25-64 have a university
degree; however Alberta also had the largest new inflow of post-secondary
graduates from other provinces
-streaming is the educational practice of grouping and teaching children
according to different levels of ability, either informally in a classroom or more
formally within secondary educational programs (i.e. basic or advanced

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-the streaming of high school students into different educational pathways has
been found to often disadvantage or close off career options for students whose
parents have lower educational attainment
-according to Bourdieu, parents with more educational resources have richer
reserves of cultural capital
-cultural capital, which is derived mostly from education, reflects middle- and
upper-class values, attitudes, and beliefs that people hold about various aspects
of social life
-related concept of social capital concerns the information and social
connections that are available to individuals i.e. the possession of knowledge
about the workings of the educational system, access to special education
-a look at the history of education in Canada shows that achieving societal
equality was not an overriding goal of the educational system at the outset
-early educational aims for the Canadian masses included the desire to create
agreeable and obedient workers and a contented working class
-children were not encouraged to strive beyond their social roots, and the virtues
of leading a simple and hard-working life were praised in poems and fables
-early educational aims of Canadian missionaries were structured by racist,
sexist, and class-based ideologies
-Aboriginal men and women were taught different skills in order to reproduce
European gendered societal patterns
-goal was to produce a new and subordinate working class that would benefit
the colonizers
-strong theme of Aboriginal inferiority was woven through religious and
educational teachings
-Box 10.1 Graphic List of Abuse to Settle Claims: Complex System of
Determining Payment Seen as Necessary to Manage Huge Numbers of
Complaints by Former Residential-School Students
-court-ordered independent program used to settle serious sexual and physical
abuse claims by former residential-school students- majority of which were
aboriginals who were children or teens when they were assaulted
-expected to process about 12 500 claimants by 2013
-the more abuse a person can claim, along with providing supporting evidence of
subsequent harm, such as a forced abortion, substance-abuse problems, or lost
income, the higher the rate of financial compensation that person is entitled to

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from the federal government
-maximum amount is $245 000 however if a person can prove income loss, the
final amount can be increased up to $430 000
-the new program, the Independent Assessment Process, is supervised by nine
provincial and territorial courts
-part of a larger historic $4 billion residential-schools settlement agreement that
came into effect last fall (as of date printed)
-the settlement included a lump-sum payment for all surviving former residential
students, approximately 80 000 people, average payment about $28 000
-most of the schools involved were church-run but supported financially by the
Canadian gov from the 1870’s-1970’s
-Mr Cockney was born in a camp east of Tuktoyaktuk, small community 350km
north of the Arctic circle
-when he was 5 (1961) he was “abducted” from his parents, flown to Gollier Hall
(Catholic-run residential school in Inuvik) along with his brother Rex (7 yrs) and
sister Regina (6 yrs)
-next 12 years were largely a nightmare of constant physical, sexual and mental
abuse for Mr Cockney
-he said many of his ex-classmates also struggled through the years, dozens
either killing themselves or turning to substance abuse to suppress the pain of
the abuse and loss of language and culture
-these court hearings have a standard of proof similar to a civil proceeding
-$54 000- $85 000 allowed for:
-repeated, persistent incidents of anal or vaginal intercourse
-repeated, persistent incidents of anal/vaginal penetration with an object
-$40 000- $55 000 allowed for:
-one or more incidents of anal or vaginal intercourse
-repeated, persistent incidents of oral intercourse
-one or more incidents of anal/vaginal penetration with an object
-$25 000- $45 000 allowed for:
-one or more incidents or oral intercourse
-one or more incidents of digital anal/vaginal penetration
-one or more incidents of attempted anal/vaginal penetration (excluding
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