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Maria Dicenzo

Oedipus Rex 1. Context Greek Theater - Part of a religious festival - To attend a play was an act of worship, not entertainment or a pastime - God celebrated in the plays was Dionysus - A deity who lived in the wild and was known for destructive revelry - Associated with an ecstasy that bordered on madness - Cult was that of drunkenness and sexuality - Cultural centrality - Every citizen attended the plays - The fall of Athens ended the reign of Greek theatre - When reading it in modern times, we often misinterpret it by thinking about it or relating it to our own arts (in modern time) 2. Summary & Analysis Line 1-337 Summary - Opening scene - Oedipus is greeted by the priests who surround the sick citizens of Thebes - Citizens cary branches wrapped in wool as gift to gods - Thebes is plague stricken - Priests ask Oedipus to save Thebes - Finds out that the only way to free Thebes from the plague is to drive out the murderer of Laius, who ruled Thebes before Oedipus - Creon tells the story of Laius - On way to consult an oracle, Laius and one of his travellers were killed by thieves - Too busy with the curse of the sphinx, Thebes made no attempt to find the murderers - Oedipus resolves to solve the mystery of Laius’s murder - Chorus enters - Calling on the gods Apollo, Athena and Artemis to save Thebes - Invokes Dionysus, whose mother was a Theban - Oedipus tells the chorus he will end the plague himself - Oedipus curses the murderer, himself and the people saying that the murderer, regardless of whether or not they are family, will face the harsh treatment and exile he has wished on the murderer - Castigates the people for letting the murderer go unknown for so long - The leader of the chorus suggests that Oedipus call for Tiresias, a prophet, and Oedipus responds that he has already done so Analysis - Oedipus is notable for his compassion, his sense of justice, his swiftness of thought and action and his frankness - Continually voices concern for help and well-being of his people - Insists in letting all of his people hear what the oracle has said - Sophocles’ audience knew the story of Oedipus - Therefore they were able to interpret the greatness Oedipus exudes in the first scene as the tragic harbinger of his fall - Seizes every opportunity to exploit the dramatic irony - Oedipus speaks of sight and blindness frequently, creating moments of dramatic irony - The audience knows that it is Oedipus’s metaphorical blindness to the relationship with his past and present situation that brings about his ruin - Ex. Line 68-72; The priest tells Oedipus of the horrors, Oedipus says that he could not fail to see it - Sometimes it seems as though Oedipus brings the catastrophe upon himself willingly - Ex. Line 294-300; Oedipus proclaims that he possesses the bed of the former king and that marriage might have created a “blood-bond” between him and Laius had he not been murdered - Oedipus takes the role of God - During the chorus’s ode, they call on the gods to save them - Instead, Oedipus comes forward and takes the role of god, saying that he will fix it - Comes close to dismissing the gods - Foreshadows Oedipus’s willful blindness and justifies his downfall due to his dangerous pride Line 338-706 Summary - Begins with Oedipus speaking to Tiresias - Begs him to reveal who Laius’s murderer is - Tiresias answers only that he knows the truth but wishes he did not - Oedipus is first confused, then angry and insists that Tiresias tells what he knows - Provoked by Oedipus’s insults and anger, Tiresias begins to hint at what he knows - When Oedipus furiously accuses Tiresias of the murder, he tells Oedipus that Oedipus himself is the curse - He criticizes Tiresias’s powers and insults his blindness - Tiresias responds that the insults will be turned on Oedipus by Thebes - Angry at the accusations, Oedipus comes up with a story that Creon and Tiresias are conspiring to overthrow him - Leader of the chorus asks Oedipus to calm down - Tiresias continues to taunt Oedipus, saying that the king does not even know who his parent are - Angers and intrigues Oedipus; asks who his parents are - Tiresias answers in riddles, saying that the murderer of Laius will turn out to be both his brother and father to his children, both son and husband to his mother - Chorus takes the stage, confused and unsure who to believe - Resolve that they will not believe the accusations against Oedipus until they are shown proof - Oedipus and Creon enter - Oedipus accuses Creon of trying to overthrow him, since it was he who recommended Tiresias come - Creon asks Oedipus to think rationally, but Oedipus says he wants Creon murdered - Creon and the Chorus try to get Oedipus to realize that he’s making up stories, but he seems set in his ways Analysis - Tiresias’s entrance in the play (his blindness) augments the dramatic irony that governs the play - Tiresias is blind but can see the truth, Oedipus has sight but cannot - The conversation between Tiresias and Oedipus contains a lot of references to sight and eyes - As Oedipus gets angrier, he taunts Tiresias for his blindness, confusing physical sight and insight or knowledge - Oedipus’s character, specifically his swiftness of thought, words and action, begins to work against him - Line 340; Oedipus praises Tiresias as an all-powerful seer who has shielded Thebes from many plagues - 40 lines later, he refers to Tiresias as scum and accuses him of treason - Oedipus sizes up a situation, makes a judgement and acts all in an instant - The chorus seems terrified and helpless - Sings of caves, darkness, lightning, wings (suggests the unknown) and terror striking from the skies - Gods are still present, but they are no longer of any help because they know truth that they will not reveal - Thebes is menaced instead of protected by the heavens Lines 707-1007 Summary - Jocasta convinces Oedipus that he should neither kill nor exile Creon - Oedipus remains convinced that Creon is guilty - Chorus enters and reassures that it will always be loyal to him - Oedipus tells her what Tiresias said, Jocasta says that all prophets are false - Tells the story that a Delphic oracle told Laius he would be murdered by his son - His son was cast out of Thebes as a baby and Laius was murdered by thieves - Her narrative of the murder sounds familiar to Oedipus and he asks to hear more - Jocasta tells Oedipus the story - Laius was killed at a three-way crossroad just before Oedipus arrived in Thebes - Oedipus tells Jocasta of his fears that he may be the one that murdered Laius - When he was the prince of Corinth, he heard that he was not really the son of the king and queen - Went to oracle of Delphi, which told him that he would murder his father and sleep with his mother - Hearing this, Oedipus fled from home - It was on the journey that would take him to Thebes that he was confronted by a group of travelers, whom he killed in self-defense at the same crossroads where Laius was killed - Hoping that he is not the murderer, Oedipus sends for the shepherd who was the only man to survive the attack - Chorus enters, announcing that the world is ruled by destiny, denouncing prideful men who would defy the gods - Chorus worries that if all the prophecies and oracles are wrong (if a proud man can triumph) then the gods may not rule the world after all - Jocasta enters to offer a branch wrapped in wool to Apollo Analysis - Regain sympathy for Oedipus in the third section, that we lost in the second (his ranting) - When Oedipus seizes upon the detail of the three-way crossroad, he proves that he was not just saying he would subject the murderer to harsh treatments (regardless of who it is) in order to seem like a respectable leader - Lines 848-923; Oedipus shows that he truly believes he killed Laius and is willing to accept not only the responsibility but the punishment for the act - Heartbreaking because we know that Oedipus has only reached half the truth - Jocasta seems to be both careless and maternal - Confuses conclusions and evidence - Oedipus did this as well: - Oedipus assumed that Tiresias’s unpleasant claims could only be treason - Jocasta assumes that because one prophecy has apparently not come true, all prophecies are a lie - Opedius’s imperfect logic in the second section has much to do with pride, whereas Jocasta’s in this section seems to be the unwitting desire to soothe and mother Oedipus - By not answering Oedipus’s questions, she is calming him down, asking him to go into the palace, telling him that he has nothing to worry about - no need to ask more questions - for the rest of his life - The Chorus’s ode serves as a reminder that no one (Jocasta, Oedipus or the audience) should feel calm - Oracles speak to a purpose and are inspired by the gods who control the destiny of men - Chorus has remained miserable, desperate for the plague to end and for stability to be restored in the city - Nevertheless, the chorus is adamant in the belief that the prophecies of Tiresias will come true - If they do not, there is no order on earth or in the heavens Lines 1008-1310 Summary - Messenger enters, looking for Oedipus - Tells Jocasta that he has come from Corinth to tell Oedipus that his father, Polybus, is dead - Corinth wants Oedipus to come back and rule there - Jocasta rejoices, convinced that Polybus is dead from natural causes - The prophecy that Oedipus will murder his father is false - Oedipus arrives, hears the news and rejoices with Jocasta - Both concur that prophecies are worthless and the world is ruled by chance - Oedipus still fears the part of the prophecy that said he would sleep with his mother - The messenger tells him that he need not worry because Polybus and his wife, Merope, are not really Oedipus’s natural parents - The messenger explains that he used to be a shepherd years ago - One day, he found a baby on Mount Cithaeron, near Thebes - The baby had its ankles pinned together, and the former shepherd set them free - The baby was Oedipus, who still walks with a limp - Oedipus asks who left him on the mountain, the shepherd replies that another shepherd, Laius’s servant, gave him baby Oedipus - Jocasta turns sharply, seeming to sense some horrible revelation on the horizon - Oedipus wants to find the shepherd - Jocasta begs him to abandon his search, but Oedipus insists - After screaming and pleading, Jocasta flees back into the palace - Oedipus dismisses her concerns as snobbish fears that he may be born to poor parents - Oedipus and the chorus rejoice at the possibility that they may soon know who his parents are - The other shepherd, who also witnessed Laius’s murder, comes onto stage - Messenger identifies him as the man who gave him baby Oedipus - Oedipus interrogates the new arrival, but the shepherd refuses to talk - After threatening him with torture, the shepherd answers that the baby came from the house of Laius - After further questioning, the shepherd tells him that it was Laius’s child and that Jocasta gave it to him to destroy because of the prophecy - Instead the shepherd gave him to the ther shepherd, so that he would be raised as a prince in Corinth - Realizing who he is and who his parents are, Oedipus screams that he sees the truth and flees back into the palace Analysis - Oedipus’s glee (that he is not the murderer) reveals the extent to which he has withdrawn into himself after obtaining the knowledge that he killed his father - He and Jocasta rejoice in the smallest and most bizarre details in order to alleviate some of the guilt Oedipus feels - Oedipus’s own tenacity means that he will not allow his understanding to remain incomplete - Deprives himself of ambiguous details that could alleviate his guilt - Makes his own life into a riddle - Unable to face the reality of his origins - Making up an identity allows him to feel a sense of control over it, keep it ambiguous - Oedipus’s drastic actions near the end of the play becomes an exaggerated model of how the audience is expected to react to the words of the messenger characters - Messenger characters narrate catastrophes in the final scenes of Greek plays Lines 1311-1684 Summary - Chorus enters - Cries that even Oedipus was brought low by destiny, for he unknowingly murdered his father and married his mother - Messenger enters again to tell chorus what has happened in the palace - Jocasta has killed herself - Locked herself in her bedroom, crying for Laius and weeping for her monstrous fate - Oedipus came to the door asking for a sword and cursing Jocasta - Finally hurled himself at the bedroom door, bursting through it and saw Jocasta hanging from a noose - He sobbed and embraced Jocasta - Took the gold pins that held her robes and stabbed out his eyes - Kept raking pins down his eyes, crying that he could not bear to see the world now that he has learned the truth - Oedipus emerges from the palace just as the messenger finishes the story - With blood streaming from his eyes, he fumes and rants at his fate and the infinite darkness that embraces him - Claims that though Apollo ordained his destiny, it was he alone who pierced his own eyes - Asks to be banished from Thebes - Chorus shrinks away from Oedipus as he curses his birth, his marriage, his life and in turn all births, marriages and lives - Creon enters - Chorus expresses hope that he can restore order - Creon forgives Oedipus for his past accusations of treason - Asks Oedipus be sent inside so the public display of shame will stop - Creon agrees to exile Oedipus only if every detail is approved by the Gods - Oedipus embraces hope of exile - Believes that, for some reason, the gods want to keep him alive - Asks Creon to take of his girls, whom he would like to see one last time - Girls (Antigone and Ismene) enter, crying - Oedipus embraces him, says he weeps for them since they will be excluded from society and no man will want to marry the offspring of an incestuous marriage - Asks Creon to promise that he will take care of them - Reaches out to Creon, but Creon will not touch his hand - Creon puts an end to the farewell, saying Oedipus has wept shamefully enough - Orders guards to take Antigone and Ismene away - Tells Oedipus that his power has ended - Everyone exits - Chorus comes onstage once more - Oedipus, greatest of men, as fallen and so all life is miserable and only death can bring peace Analysis - Chorus turns images of the plowman and ship’s captain into images of his failure - Stood for Oedipus’s success and ability to manage state - Focuses on sexual aspect of Oedipus’s actions - Oedipus and his father have, like two ships in one port, shared the same wide harbor - Oedipus has plowed the same “furrows” his father plowed - Harbor image refers to Jocasta’s bedchamber - Both images refer to the space that Oedipus and his father have shared - Images of earth, soil and plowing continue through the scene, noticeably in Oedipus’s final speeches (when he talks to his children about what he has done) - Images of earth, soil and plowing are used to suggest metaphor of sturdy plowman tilling the soil of the state, but also suggest the image of the soil drinking blood of the family members Oedipus has killed - Oedipus’s crimes are presented as a kind of blight on the land, a plague - Symbolized by the plague with which the play begins - Infects the earth on which Oedipus, his family and his citizens stand - In which all are buried as a result of Oedipus’s violence - Oedipus enters after self-inflicted blinding, led by a boy - Clear visual echo of Tiresias’s entrance - Oedipus has become like the blind prophet whose words he scorned - Unable to see, he is now possessed with an insight or an inner sight that is all too revealing - Has left concerns of physical world (physical pain too) behind to focus on psychological torment that accompanies contemplation of the truth - Creon quickly transfers power to himself - Oedipus clings to trappings of leadership - Ex. Commands Creon to bury Jocasta as he sees fit - Oedipus finds it difficult to leave the role of commander - Which is why he asks Creon to banish him - Creon is aware that Oedipus no longer has control - Creon has anticipated Oedipus’s request for banishment - When Oedipus requests banishment, Creon says that he’s already consulted the gods about it - Same as when Oedipus anticipated the chorus’s demand for a consultation with the oracle in scene one - Oedipus becomes tragic figure rather than monster in the play’s final moments - Punishment of blindness and exile seems just because he inflicted it upon himself - Contrasted with Creon - Creon has outward trappings of Oedipus’s candid and frank nature, but none of its substance - “I try to say what I mean; it’s my habit” - Creon - Audience perceives his to be untrue - Creon’s earlier protests that he lacked the desire for power are proven to be false by his eagerness to take Oedipus’s place as king, and by the cutting ferocity with which he silences Oedipus at the end of the play - One kind of pride has replaced another - All men, as the chorus says, are destined to be miserable 3. Symbols, Motifs and Themes The willingness to ignore the truth - With all proof pointing to Oedipus as the murderer, he holds on to one small aspect of the story that was phrased wrong - Jocasta reassures Oedipus that Laius was killed by “strangers”, as in more than one - Oedipus knows that he acted alone when he killed a man under similar circumstances - Neither Jocasta nor Oedipus can face the possibility of what it would mean if the servant were wrong - They can speak of the similarities but neither will acknowledge that it may be Oedipus that murdered Laius - Ex. She tells Oedipus of the prophecy that her son will kills his father, and he tells her of the similar prophecy that he got from an oracle - Ex. He can hear stories of her binding her child’s ankles and not think of his own swollen feet - Speech is largely intended to make the audience aware of the tragic irony - Also emphasizes how desperately Oedipus and Jocasta do not want to speak of the obvious truth The limits of free will - One of Sophocles’ aims is to justify the power of the gods and prophets - Belief had come under attack in 5th century B.C. Athens - Oedipus desires to flee his fate, but it continually catches up with him - Many argue that this happens as a result of a “tragic flaw” - No one has come up with what the tragic flaw is - Many interpretations of theme - Meant to show that error and disaster can happen to anyone - Human beings are relatively powerless before fate or the gods - A cautious humility is the best attitude toward life Motifs Suicide Jocasta kills herself, Oedipus harms himself at his own hand - Incest motivates or indirectly brings about death - Sight and blindness - References to eyesight and vision (literal and metaphorical) - Oedipus is famed for his clear-sightedness and quick comprehension at the beginning - Realizes he’s been blind to the truth for many years - Blinds himself so he wouldn’t have to look on his own children/siblings - Tiresias, being blind, is the only one that sees the truth Symbols Oedipus’s swollen foot - Oedipus translates to “swollen foot” - Symbolizes in which fate has marked him and set him apart - Also symbolizes the way his movements have been confined and constrained since birth, by Apollo’s prophecy to Laius Three way crossroads - Symbolizes crucial moment, long before the events of the play, when Oedipus began to fulfill the prophecy - Crossroads often symbolize where decisions will have important consequences but where different choices are possible - In the play, it symbolizes fate and the power of prophecy rather than freedom of choice Everyman A Doll’s House Key Facts Full title: A Doll’s House Author: Henrik Ibsen Type of work: Play Genre: Realistic, modern prose drama Language: Norwegian Time and place written: 1879, Rome and Amalfi, Italy Date of first publication: 1879 Tone: Serious, intense, somber Setting (time): Presumably around the late 1870s Setting (place): Norway Protagonist: Nora Helmer 1. Summary and Analysis Act one - Opens on Christmas Eve - Nora enters the house with packages and a Christmas tree - Nora tips the porter twice as much - Torvald enters, calling her his “skylark” and “squirrel” - Nora points out that they can live on credit until Torvald gets his promotion - Torvald scolds her, and says that he hates debt because “a home that depends on loans and debts is not beautiful because it is not free” - Nora complies by saying, “Everything as you wish, Torvald” - Noticing Nora’s disappointment, Torvald tries to cheer her up by offering her money to spend on Christmas - Nora becomes enthusiastic again and thanks him profusely - Torvald asks Nora what she would like for Christmas - She is hesitant to tell him, but finally says that she would like money so she can buy herself the perfect gift - Torvald scolds Nora again for being wasteful with money, a trait she inherited from her father - Scolding ends with him saying he loves his “lovely little singing bird” just the way she is and he wouldn’t want her to change - Torvald complains of the previous Christmas - Talks about how Nora shut herself up in a room late every night for three weeks making Christmas ornaments - He remarks that he had never been so bored in his life. - He also emphasizes that Nora had very little to show for all of her toil when she was finished - Nora reminds her husband that she can’t be blamed for the cat getting into the room and destroying all her hard work - Torvald again expresses happiness that they are financially better off than they were before - The doorbell rings - The maid, Helene, announces that Dr. Rank has arrived to see Torvald and that there is a lady caller as well Analysis - The transaction between Nora and the porter that opens A Doll’s House immediately puts the spotlight on money, which emerges as one of the forces driving the play’s conflicts as it draws lines between genders, classes, and moral standards - Torvald’s assertion that Nora’s lack of understanding of money matters is the result of her gender - Ex.“Nora, my Nora, that is just like a woman” - Reveals his prejudiced viewpoint on gender roles - Torvald believes a wife’s role is to beautify the home, not only through proper management of domestic life but also through proper behavior and appearance - He quickly makes it known that appearances are very important to him, and that Nora is like an ornament or trophy that serves to beautify his home and his reputation - Torvald’s insistence on calling Nora by affectionately diminutive names evokes her helplessness and her dependence on him - The only time that Torvald calls Nora by her actual name is when he is scolding her - When he is greeting or adoring her, however, he calls her by childish animal nicknames such as “my little skylark” and “my squirrel” - By placing her within such a system of names, Torvald not only asserts his power over Nora but also dehumanizes her to a degree - When he implies that Nora is comparable to the “little birds that like to fritter money,” Torvald suggests that Nora lacks some fundamental male ability to deal properly with financial matters - Though Torvald accuses Nora of being irresponsible with money, he gives her more in order to watch her happy reaction - This act shows that Torvald amuses himself by manipulating his wife’s feelings - Nora is like Torvald’s doll—she decorates his home and pleases him by being a dependent figure with whose emotions he can toy - In addition to being something of a doll to Torvald, Nora is also like a child to him - He shows himself to be competing with Nora’s dead father for Nora’s loyalty - In a sense, by keeping Nora dependent upon and subservient to him, Torvald plays the role of Nora’s second father - He treats her like a child, doling out money to her and attempting to instruct her in the ways of the world - Nora’s gift selections—a sword and a horse for her male children and a doll for her daughter—show that she reinforces the stereotypical gender roles that hold her in subservience to Torvald - Nora sees her daughter the same way she has likely been treated all of her life—as a doll Act one, continued - Nora greets the female visitor - The visitor realizes that Nora does not remember her - Finally, Nora recognizes her as her childhood friend Kristine Linde - Nora remarks that Mrs. Linde looks paler and thinner than she remembered, apologizes for not writing three years earlier when she read that Mrs. Linde’s husband had died in the paper - Listens to Mrs. Linde talk, but keeps turning the conversation back on herself and her own life - Tells Mrs. Linde of a time when they were not as well off financially - Had to go to Italy because Torvald fell ill - Says her father paid for the trip - The family left for Italy at about the same time her father died - Mrs. Linde reveals that she came to town to find some office work - Married her husband for financial means - Had to take care of her mother and brothers - Mother has now passed away and her brothers are grown, so she is free - Says that she is sadder now that no one is dependent on her, because she has no one to live for - Nora promises to talk to Torvald about helping Mrs. Linde - Protests that she should not work - Mrs. Linde snaps at Nora, saying that she could not understand - Apologizes, saying her predicaments have made her bitter - Explains that since she is only looking after herself now, it has made her selfish Analysis - First conversation with Mrs. Linde plays key role in establishing Nora’s childlike, self-centered and insensitive character - Repeatedly turns conversation back to her own life - Reinforced when Nora reveals that she failed to write Mrs. Linde after her husband passed away - Seems to be a matter of polite reflex - Nora has no filter; childlike - Comments on Mrs. Linde’s appearance - Selfish/insensitive - Recognizes that Mrs. Linde is poor - Still delights openly in the fact that she and Torvald will soon have “pots and pots” of money - Does not recognize that such comments might be hurtful to her old friend - From a structural p.o.v, Nora must develop over the course of the play - Because Nora is perceived as childlike in the beginning, it becomes apparent that Nora’s development will involve education, maturation and the shedding of her seeming naivete - Nora’s naivete is shown through her perception of love and marriage vs. Mrs. Linde’s - Nora’s incredulity at Mrs. Linde’s remark indicates that Nora is sheltered and somewhat unsophisticated - Initial interactions with Torvald and Mirs. Linde is the tension between Nora’s childish nature and her need to grow out of it - Mrs. Linde is poised to be Nora’s teacher and guide her on her journey to maturity - Mrs. Linde recounts hardships and sacrifices, in contrast to the pampering Nora receives from Torvald - Both Mrs. Linde and Nora’s marriages involve sacrificing themselves to another in exchange for money - Nora marries for her own welfare, Mrs. Lind does so for the welfare of her family Scene one, continued Summary - Mrs. Linde comments that Nora is still a child because she has known no hardships - Nora reveals that her father didn’t lend her the money for the trip to Italy - Mrs. Linde tells her she should not keep secrets from her husband - Nora responds that she doesn’t want this “man’s pride” to be hurt and that he “would be so ashamed and humiliated if he thought he owed me anything” - Nora reveals that she has been using her allowance since the trip to pay her debt - Instead of making ornaments like her husband thought, Nora took up copying work and that was the real reason she kept herself locked up in the room - Krogstad enters - Both Nora and Mrs. Linde are surprised to see the man - Has come to speak to Torvald about bank business - Dr. Rank leaves the study when Krogstad goes in - Has a conversation with Nora - Says that Krogstad is “morally sick” - Informs the women that Krogstad has a small position in the bank - Audience finds out that macaroons are “banned” in their home because Torvald things they are bad for Nora’s teeth - Theme: image Analysis - In the latter half of act one, it’s evident that the Torvald house is full of secrets and deceptions - Ex. Nora’s lying about the macaroons - Because eating a macaroon seems like a trivial matter, one can argue that lying about it is insignificant - One can also argue that the trivial nature of eating the macaroon is the very thing that makes the lie so troubling - Speaks to the depth of both her guilt and the tension between her and Torvald - Ex. The loan Nora acquired in order to save Torvald’s life - Nora is guilty of forgery - The audience forgives Nora because she is motivated by noble and selfless intent - In both instances, Nora lies because of Torvald’s unfair stereotypes about gender roles - Torvald shows biases concerning women’s roles in society - Assumes Mrs. Linde is a widow - Shows that he believes a proper married woman should not work outside the home - Ex. “Only a mother could bear to be here” - Suggests that any woman who wants a job must not have children - Contain a veiled expression of pride
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