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Chapter 1

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Barbara Carmichael

Chapter 1 Summary Tourism = global phenomenon with rapid growth post 1945 period Tourism is not a new phenomenon Smith (2004) “tourism and travel have been part of the human experience for millennia -form of nomadism that characterizer Homo spinets, which is both normal and under the right conditions, pleasurable Last 30 years = rise of jet aircraft, tourism has grown and emerge as global phenomenon, increase range of environments and attracting new markets Tourism is associated with the following issues: 1. Travelling away from one’s home for 24 hours 2. Using one’s leisure time to travel and take holidays 3. Travelling for business = tourism 20 century and new millennium witness growth of leisure society where people value holidays, travel and the experience of visiting new places 1950 emphasis discretionary spending on leisure activities reflects greater disposable income and increase availability of time to engage in leisure and pursuits and holidays Leisure society- has roots in the western developed world, trends that emerged in the 1990s indicated an expansion in the global propensity to travel and engage in holidays Post Communist countries –major economic, political, social and cultural change, demand is escalating in countries formerly not engaged in international tourism as well as world regions ASIA, China, and (India = subcontinent) Tourism is part of a global process of change and development = globalization -no longer confined to the developed countries that traditionally provided the demand for world travel -force of change = more diverse and not homogeneous July 2004 – UK culture Secretary launched Tomorrow’s Tourism Today for England -vision to increase annual turnover of tourism from 76 bill to 100 bill -demonstrates the growing importance of national government attaches to increasing the economic development potential of the sector and the need to reduce the UK balance of payments travel deficit due to outbound travel 1991 International tourism industry employed 112 million people worldwide and generated over 2.5 trillion at 1989 prices 2006 234.3 people employed Europe remains the most visited of all regions of the world = 484 million arrivals in 2007 Impact of London bombing on tourism -attracts 26 million overnight visits, 150 million day trips and 50 million domestic visits -15 billion dollars of tourism supporting 260 000 jobs -visits to conferences, exhibition and meetings -target for terrorist disrupt business activities and population to promote their cause by gaining global media attention -1867 events, the Fenians wages a terror campaign related to Home rule 1883 – 1885 -Irish republican army attack in 1939 -2005 bombings by other terrorist group -forecasting for the event says  Personal travel and tourism may decline by 2.3 percent  Business travel may decline $523 million  Gov expenditure on tourism may increase by 6.3 percent  Tourism economy may contract by 0.55% -2006 July visitor grown 950 00 to 6 million dollars -shock events can hit tourism hard in the short run but sustained recovery and resilient crisis management plan are essential to assist in promoting business as usual -America has 142 mill arrivals 2007 a 16.1 per cent share of the total market -fastest growing regions was East Asia Pacific region 183 million arrivals 2006 -Africa with 44 million arrivals in 2006 and Middle East of 48 million Tourism Satellite accounts (TSAs) -provide more reliable and comparable data generated by individual nations -easy for gov to underestimate real value tourism has -tourism is volatile economic activity subject to shock waves such as oil crisis 1970 Asian economic crisis in 1997 and 1998 SARS 2003 Consumer can be damaged by media reporting, change in consumer behaviour, propensity to travel and choice of destination 1980 study of tourism was not worthy compared to history, economics and politics Tourism perceived as a subject taught at craft level Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management and Journal of Travel Research = indication of emergence of the subject as a serious area Hall, William and Lew (2004) |terms of the advancement of knowledge, there is now a body of tourist literature as evidence in journals, books, conference proceedings and electronic publication Ryan 2005 -books, notes = important medium of communication offering synthesis of existing knowledge and opportunities to debate tourism Difficulties in studying tourism 1. Recognition: tourism is not easily recognized as a subject because some analyst view is as an industry, while others view it as a subject of process. NO universal agreement on how to approach 2. Conceptualization: academics say tourism is a subject that is weak and no universally agreed sets of laws or principles that all researchers adopt as the starting point for the discuses of tourism -tourism = multidisciplinary which they examine tourism in their own standpoints rather than universally agreed tourism -severely limits intellectual development of the areas as there is no cross fertilization of ideas across disciplines 3. Terminology: wide range on jargon (alternative, responsible, sustainable) -lack of universally agreed definition of phenomena 4. Data sources: available to tourism researchers are weak compared with other subject 5. Reductionism: Different approach by researchers from different discipline and industry backgrounds (cooper 1998) -tourism is reduced to a series of activities or economic transactions and is not seen in terms of a wider series of concepts and overarching analytical framework that would help in the understanding and interpretation of tourism Example = postmodern paradigm to explain tourism behaviour 6. Rigour: suspicion about the intellectual rigour with tourism researchers approach their subject -difficult by the tendency for non specialists to dabble in their area of research perceived by as easy to understand and associate fun aspects such as travel and leisure 7. Theory: No theoretical constructs or theory which explain the development and internal dynamics of tourism as a process of global economic and social change have been developed -subject will not advance learning and understanding until theories are developed, tested, modified and rejected or redeveloped -research in tourism tend to be descriptive, lacking in contribution to development of knowledge and using established techniques and methodologies Urry’s The Tourist Gaze (1990) -attendant postmodernist and sociological analysis of modern day tourism, are the exception rather than rule in tourism 8. Academic/ practitioner divide: inherent tensions in tourism research between the pursuit of knowledge by academics to advance their subject are and practical and applied needs of the tourism industry and public sector policy maker who wish to influence the research agenda by seeking usable result from academics Traditional definition viewed leisure as non co
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