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Chapter 14-15

PS101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14-15: Schizotypal Personality Disorder, Psychoanalysis, Etiology


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS101
Professor
Don Morgenson
Chapter
14-15

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Chapter 14: Psychological Disorders
What is abnormal?
oIs the behaviour considered strange within the persons own culture?
oDoes the behaviour cause personal distress?
oIs the behaviour maladaptive?
oIs the person a danger to self or others?
oSocial norm?
History of Psychological Disorders
oMental illness
Neurosis
Disorder causing personal distress
Some implement in functioning
Psychosis
Severe psychological disorder, sometimes requiring hospitalization
Typically lose contact with reality, suffer delusions and hallucinations
Seriously impaired ability to function in everyday life
DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders):
oDefines standardized diagnostic criteria for psychological disorders
Anxiety Disorders
oStrong negative emotions and physical tension
oAnticipation of anger
oDistress and interfere with functioning
oExtreme and frequently occurring
oUnrealistic anxiety
oVague, general uneasiness
oFeeling that something bad is going to happen
oMay be associated with a particular situation or object, or it may be “free-floating” – not
associated with anything specific
Types of anxiety disorders
1. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
Chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
2. Panic disorder
Recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and
unexpectedly
Some people report that a panic attack feels like a heart attack
Repeated panic attacks & ongoing fear of future attacks
3. Phobias
Poses no real danger
A persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger
Realize fear is irrational but compelled to avoid the feared object or situation
Three classes of phobias:
oSocial – fear of interacting with people, avoid social situations
oAgoraphobia – fear of open places or being in a situation in which escape is
difficult or impossible
oSpecific – fear of something specific

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4. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges
(compulsion) to engage in senseless rituals
Unrealistic obsessions leads to distressful/harmful compulsions
Obsessions: persistent, recurring, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that invade
consciousness and cause great distress.
Common themes: worry about contamination, doubt as to whether a certain act was
performed (locking doors)
Psychodynamic explanations:
oRepressed urges threaten to surface
Learning explanations
oClassical conditioning
oModeling
Cognitive explanations
oGAD and anxiety disorders may involve beliefs that the world is dangerous
Illogical/irrational thought patterns
oMagnification
oAll-or-nothing thinking
oOvergeneralization
oMinimization biological explanations
Biological explanations
oGenetics – MZ twins more similar than DZ twins, even when adopted
GABA
oSelective serotonin
oReuptake inhibitors (SSRI’s)
oUsed to treat depression and anxiety disorders
Somatoform Disorders
oBelief you are ill
oBelief you experience physical complaints/disabilities
oNo known biological cause
oSomatic = “bodily” ailment
oThree Types:
i. Hypochondriasis – excessive worry about getting ill, preoccupied with bodily symptoms
ii. Somatization Disorder – drama, emotional, specific symptom
iii. Conversion disorder – loss of motor (sensory functions) without a reason for it
(numbness)
Moods/Affective Disorders
oMoods or emotions that are extreme and unwarranted
oFrom extreme depression to extreme elation
oTwo categories:
Depressive
Bipolar
o2 or more symptoms:
Depressed mood and/or loss of pleasure (Anhedonia) PLUS

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Sleep disturbance
Appetite disturbance
Fatigue or restlessness
Difficult concentrating
Suicidal thoughts
Hopelessness
Depression impacts on daily living
oEmotional symptoms – sadness, anxiety, inability to enjoy, misery
oCognitive – negative cognitions about self, world, future
oSomatic – loss of appetite, lack of energy, sleep difficulties, weight loss/gain
oMotivational – lack of interest, lack of drive, difficulty starting anything
Causes of depression
oBiological factors
Genetic factors
67% concordance rate for identical twins (depression)
15% of fraternal twins
Genetic predisposition to mood disorder
oNeurotransmitters
Under-activity
Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin in depression
oPsychological factors
oPersonality based vulnerability
Psychodynamic view
Early traumatic losses (rejections create vulnerability)
oHumanistic Factors
Define self worth in terms of individual attainment
React more strongly to failures, due to inadequacies
Experience of meaninglessness
oCognitive processes
Depression cognitive triad
oNegative thought concerning: the world, oneself, the future
oCannot suppress negative thoughts
oRecall more failures vs. successes
Depressive – attributable pattern
oSuccess = factors outside self
oNegative outcomes = personal factors
oPlays roles in learned helplessness
Learned helplessness theory
oDepression occurs when people expect that bad events will occur and they will think that they
can’t cope with them
Learning and Environmental factors
oLoss of reinforcement
oDepression occurs
oCauses loss of social support
oDeeper depression
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