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Chapter 1

PS101 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Ethnocentrism, Behaviorism

Course Code
Joanne Lee

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Chapter 1 – Evolution of Psychology
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
-groping towards better understanding of themselves
Philosophy, Physiology and Psychology
Psychology: study of the mind
-psychology has just recently emerged as scientific discipline
-developments in philosophy and physiology influence course of early
-memories result of 3 principles: association, similarity, contrast and contiguity
-humans are part of nature and are understandable in those terms
New Science is Born: Contributions of Wundt and Hall
Wilhelm Wundt (founder of psychology) – made psychology an independent discipline
-established first formal laboratory for research in psychology in Leipzig (1879)
-declared psych should be modelled after physics and chem
-psychology’s primary focus was consciousness (awareness of immediate experience)
-focus on mind and mental processes
-wundt had great influence; north America grew the psychology studies
Battle of Schools: Structuralism and Functionalism
Structuralism: led by Edward Titchner
Structuralism: based on notion that task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into
its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related
-identify and examine fundamental components of conscious experience; sensations,
feelings and images
-most of their work concerned: sensation, perception in vision, hearing, touch
relied on introspection: careful systematic, self observation of ones own conscious
-exposed to experiences and asked to analyze what they experienced
functionalism: based on belief psychology should investigate function/purpose of
consciousness rather than structure
-william James
-psychology embedded in network of cultural and intellectual influences
natural selection: heritable characteristics that provide survival/reproductive advantages
that are more likely to be selected
-psychology should investigate functions rather than structure of consciousness
-consciousness consists of continuous flow of thoughts “stream of consciousness”
-functionalism fostered development of 2 descendants of psychology:
1) behaviourism
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