PS268 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Dopamine Receptor D2, Manfred Sakel, Atypical Antipsychotic

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
School
WLU
Department
Psychology
Course
PS268
Professor
Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 8
Brian Kwok 1
Mental Illness
o Referred to as psychological disorders, characterized by alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour
Associated with significant distress and impaired functioning
Can vary from mild to severe
o Second leading cause of human disability and premature death in Canada
o Depression occurs in 10-25% of females (twice the rate in men)
o In people with mental disorders, substance abuse risk is 2-4x as high as general population
Tobacco and cannabis the two most abused
o Risk of schizophrenia in adulthood 6x as high in frequent cannabis users
o Two proposed theories
Self medication hypothesis
People choose drug that is effective in combating symptoms of psychosis
o Provides negative reinforcement
Primary addiction hypothesis
Neurobiology of psychosis and brain areas involved increase vulnerability to
substance abuse
Increased vulnerability may produce increased pleasure
o Provides positive reinforcement
o Medical model
Before 19th century, mental illness explained by magic or religious explanations or biophysical
explanations
Increasing focus on neurobiological cause had beneficial results
Promoted new treatments, reduced stigma and encouraged investment into further
research
Term “mental illness” implies particular model for behavioural disorders or dysfunctions
Medical model
Attacked by psychologists and psychiatrists
Patient appears with a set of symptoms, and on the basis of these symptoms a
diagnosis is made as to which disease the patient has
o Once disease is known, cause can be determined, and cure can be provided
A set of behavioural symptoms is all we have to define and diagnose the disorder
Do people really have a disease with a physical cause and a potential cure? Or is it
similar to being described as “friendly”, “crabby”…etc?
Affects thinking, mood or behaviour
Can be associated with distress and impairment of function
Symptoms vary from mild to severe and may require hospitalization
If chemicals can normalize an individual’s behaviour, natural assumption would be that original
problem due to chemical imbalance in the brain
o Classification of mental disorders
Human behaviour is variable, and cause of mental disorder is unknown, classification of
people with mental illnesses into categories is difficult
Psychotherapeutic drugs
Some division important for understanding the uses
DSM provides criteria for classifying mental disorders into hundreds of specific
diagnostic categories
o Become standard for mental health professionals
Anxiety is normal, but when they become unrealistic, they can interfere with daily life
Physical symptoms may also be present
o Referred to as “anxiety disorders”
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Drugs and Behaviour - Chapter 8
Brian Kwok 2
Tend to not think of anxiety as a behavioural system, but an internal state that causes the
disorders
Linked with many disorders, reason why anti-anxiety drugs are applicable to multiple
illnesses
Psychosis
Serious mental disorder involving loss of contact with reality
Major disturbance of normal intellectual and social functioning
o Not knowing current date, hearing voices and withdrawal from reality
Individuals exhibit perturbations in mood and emotion secondary to alterations in
limbic system function
May be viewed as group of symptoms that can have many possible causes
Organic psychoses
o One that has known physical cause
Functional psychoses
o No known or obvious physical cause
Schizophrenia shattered mind, not split personality
Mood disorders
Appearance of depressed or manic symptoms
Have no single cause, several factors
o Biochemical imbalance in brain, psychological factors and socioeconomic
factors
Important distinction is in the drug treatment of mood disorders
o Bipolar manic and depressive episodes
o Major depression only depressive episodes are reported
Anxiety and panic disorders
Panic attacks
o Shortness of breath, dizziness, palpitations or accelerated heart rate,
trembling, seating, choking, numbness, fear of dying or fear of going crazy
Cholecystokinin plays fundamental role in panic that can be modelled in animals
o Can cause panic attacks
People anxiety disorder are sensitive to CCK
May have higher levels in brain
Anxiety and depression important to development of panic disorder
Many different classifications of panic disorder
Many factors that influence pharmacological management of panic
o Different psychotherapeutics can be prescribed
Children of adults with anxiety disorders much greater risk of an anxiety disorder than
general population
o Genetic factor, effect of parenting practices or both
Assigning a diagnosis based off of experience and observation, two diagnosis can be
completely different
Treatment of mental disorders
o Before 1950
1917 physical treatment predominant
Great proportion of patients had general paresis syphilitic infection of the nervous system
Malaria related fever produced marked improvement
1920s wealthier patients could afford barbiturates and other depressant
Reduction in psychotherapy would enable people to express thoughts better
1933 Manfred Sakel induced comas in schizophrenics
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Document Summary

Mental illness: referred to as psychological disorders, characterized by alterations in thinking, mood or behaviour. Associated with significant distress and impaired functioning. Can vary from mild to severe: second leading cause of human disability and premature death in canada, depression occurs in 10-25% of females (twice the rate in men) In people with mental disorders, substance abuse risk is 2-4x as high as general population. Tobacco and cannabis the two most abused: risk of schizophrenia in adulthood 6x as high in frequent cannabis users, two proposed theories. People choose drug that is effective in combating symptoms of psychosis: provides negative reinforcement. Neurobiology of psychosis and brain areas involved increase vulnerability to substance abuse. Increased vulnerability may produce increased pleasure: provides positive reinforcement, medical model. Before 19th century, mental illness explained by magic or religious explanations or biophysical explanations. Increasing focus on neurobiological cause had beneficial results. Promoted new treatments, reduced stigma and encouraged investment into further research.

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