PS366 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Agrammatism, Lexeme, Lexicon

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2 Feb 2013
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Psycholinguistics Chapter 5
1
Introduction
psycholinguists refer to the representation of words in permanent memory as our internal lexicon
when a word is found in our lexicon, then all properties we associate with that word is
accessible to us
including spelling, pronunciation, relationship to other words and related information
process of looking through our internal lexicon is
lexical access
words may be accessed several ways
perception of the word (written, oral)
activate the meaning through other words
Dimensions of word knowledge
phonological knowledge
we have knowledge of the phonological structure or pronunciation of words
we know when two words are homophones
tip of the tongue phenomenon
when we are unsuccessfully retrieving a particular word and can only remember
slightly how it sounds
systematically studied for the first time by Brown and McNeill
retrieves similar sounding words, but brain will reject it
syntactic knowledge
knowledge of the word's part of speech, or where they belong
words of the same syntactic category can be substituted with another one from the same
category
example: adjectives can be interchanged in a sentence
changing the word, even though it's syntactically the same, may change the meaning of the
sentence
allows us to create rules in terms of categories rather than lexical terms
agrammatism
disorder which causes patients to omit closed-class words from sentences while
preserving open-class words
process closed-class words differently than individuals without neurological damage
morphological knowledge
identifying vocabulary size depends on the morphology of language
morphemes are smallest unit of meaning in language
bound morphemes and free morphemes
two types of bound morphemes
inflectional morphemes
added to free morpheme to express grammatical contrasts in
sentences
includes plural phonemes and past tense morphemes
derivational morphemes
added to free morphemes to create new words
example
-nests
-ion
-in
can change the pronunciation of the word as well as the syntactical
category
inflectional morphemes must be applied before derivational morphemes
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Psycholinguistics Chapter 5
2
both can used at the same time
average high school graduate knows about 45,000 words
semantic knowledge
sense and reference
relationship between words and things in world is reference
things in world are called referents of the word
used to determine the truthfulness of a sentence
"there is a brown cow grazing in the field"
there has to be a brown cow
has to be a field
cow has to be grazing in the field
reference only applies to tangible or visible things in the world
some words have meaning, but no referent
abstract words
words that have no real referent
unicorn
may refer to objects in other hypothetical roles
this process plays a huge role in imaginary
play/literature
mental model
cognitive structure that represents some aspect of our environment
not limited to language
example would be us being able to visualize our house or bedroom
two different sentences may have the same referent but not the same
meaning
sense
its place in a system of relationships which it contracts with other words in
the library
synonymy
when two words or expressions mean the same thing
coordination
when two words exist at the same level in a hierarchy
cat and dog both fall under the heading of animal
hypernymy
relationship of superordination within a hierarchy
bird is hypernym of sparrow
hyponymy
opposite of hypernymy
sparrow is hyponym of bird
meronymy
pertains to the parts of the referent object
back, legs would be meronyms of chair
word association test is used to see how sense relations correspond to how
people use words
word is given to the subject, subject is then asked to give the first
word that comes to their mind
based off of responses given to the word chair
taxonomic relations
table - coordinate
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