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Psychology (1,877)
PS101 (450)
Chapter 4

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Lawrence Murphy

Central nervous system Consists of brain and spinal cord (CNS) Spinal cord Collection of neurons and supportive tissue; protected by column of bones (spinal column) Peripheral nervous system All portion of nervous system outside brain and spinal cord; includes (PNS) sensory and motor nerves Somatic nervous system Part of PNS; connects to sensory receptors and to skeletal muscles; a.k.a skeletal nervous system Autonomic nervous Part of PNS; regulates internal organ and glands system Sympathetic nervous Part of autonomic nervous system; mobilizes bodily resources and system increases output of energy during emotion and stress Parasympathetic nervous Part of autonomic nervous system; operates during relaxed states and system conserves energy Neuron Cell that conducts electrochemical signals; basic unit of nervous system; a.k.a nerve cell Glia Cells that support, nurture, and insulate neurons, remove debris when neurons die, enhance formation and maintenance of neural connections, and modify neuronal functioning Dendrites Neuron's branches that receive info from other neurons and transmit it toward cell body Cell body Part of neuron that keeps it alive and determines whether or not it'll fire Axon Neuron's extending fibre that conducts impulses away from cell body and transmits them to other neurons Myelin sheath Fatty insulation that may surround axon of neuron Nerve Bundle of nerve fibres (axons and sometimes dendrites) in PNS Neurogenesis Production of new neurons from immature stem cells Stem cells Immature cells that renew themselves and have potential to develop into mature cells; given encouraging environments, stem cells from early embryos can develop into any cell type Synapse Site where transmission of nerve impulse from one nerve cell to another occurs; includes axon terminal, synaptic cleft, and receptor sites in membrane of receiving cell Action potential Brief change in electrical voltage that occurs b/w inside and outside of axon when neuron is stimulated; serves to produce electrical impulse Neurotransmitter Chem substance released by transmitting neuron at synapse which alters activity of receiving neuron Plasticity Brain's ability to change and adapt in response to experience (i.e. reorganizing or growing new neural connections) Endorphins Chem substances in nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates; involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory; known as endogenous opioid peptides Hormones Chem substances secreted by glands which affect functioning of other organs Endocrine glands Internal organs that produce hormones and release them into bloodstream Melatonin Hormone secreted by pineal gland; involved in regulation of biological rhythms Oxytocin Hormone secreted by pituitary gland; stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth, facilitates ejection of milk during nursing, promotes attachment and trust in relationship (in both sexes) Adrenal hormones Hormones produced by adrenal glands; involved in emotion and stress Sex hormones Hormones that regulate development and functioning of reproductive organs and stimulate development of male and female sexual characteristics; include progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, etc. Electroencephalogram Recording of neural activity detected by electrodes (EEG) Transcranial magnetic Method of stimulating brain cells using powerful magnetic field stimulation (TMS) produced by wire coil placed on person's head; can temporarily inactivate neural circuits and also being used therapeutically PET scan (positron- Method for analyzing biochemistry activity in brain; uses injections of emission tomography) glucose-like substance containing radioactive element MRI (magnetic resonance Method for studying body and brain tissue, using magnetic fields and imaging) special radio receivers; functional MRI (fMRI) is faster form often used in psych research Localization of function Specialization of particular brain areas for particular functions Brain stem Part of brain at top of spinal cord; consists of medulla and pons Pons Structure in brain stem; involved in sleeping, waking, and dreaming Medulla Structure in brain stem responsible for certain automatic functions such as breathing and heart rate Reticular activating Dense network of neurons found in core
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