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Canada (161,663)
Psychology (1,957)
PS101 (452)
Chapter 1

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Lawrence Murphy

Empirical Derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement Psychology Discipline concerned w/ behaviour and mental processes; how they're affected by organism's physical/mental state and external environment; represented by Greek letter "psi" Psychobabble Pseudoscience covered by veneer of psychological and scientific -sounding language Critical thinking Ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on basis of well-supported reasons and evidence, rather than emotion/anecdote Occam's Razor Principle of choosing sol'n that accounts for most evidence while making fewest unverified assumptions Phrenology Now discredited theory that different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits which can be read from bumps on skull Structuralism Emphasized the analysis of immediate experience into basic elements Functionalism Emphasized the function/purpose of behaviour and consciousness Psychoanalysis Theory of personality and method of psychotherapy that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts; formulated by Sigmund Freud Humanist Psychological approach; emphasizes personal growth and achievement of psychology human potential rather than scientific understanding and assessment of behaviour Feminist Psychological approach; analyzes influence of social inequities on gender psychology relations and on behaviour of the two sexes Psychological Providing health or mental-health services practice Basic Study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake psychology rather than for its practical application Applied Study of psychological issues that have direct practical significance; also, the psychology application of psychological findings Psychotherapist Unregulated person who does any kind of psychotherapy Psychoanalyst Psychoanalysis practitioner; must've obtained specialized training at psychoanalytic institute and undergone extensive psychoanalysis personally Psychiatrist Medical doctor (MD) who has completed 3-year residency in psychiatry to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders under supervision of more experienced physicians  1.1  Guidelines to Thinking Critically about Psychological Issues o Ask questions; be willing to wonder o Define your terms o Examine the evidence o Analyze assumptions and biases o Avoid emotional reasoning o Don't oversimplify o Consider other interpretations o Tolerate uncertainty  1.2 Five Major Psychological Perspectives  o Perspective Major Topics of Sample Finding on Violence Study Biological Nervous system, Brain damage caused by birth complications hormones, brain or child abuse might incline some people chemistry, towards violence heredity, evolutionary influences Learning Environment and experience Behavioural Environmental Violence increases when it pays off determinants of observabl
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