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Chapter 1

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

TEST 1 9/30/2013 8:39:00 PM CHAPTER 1: Evolution of Psychology  High profile events motivate and energize researches in psychology to attempt to document and understand such acts in the hope of attenuating their occurrence  Psychologists seek to describe, explain and predict the occurrence of such behavior by applying scientific methods they can offer possible explanations for this behavior as well as suggestions about what to do  While abnormal psychology is an important component, psychology Is about much more  Its about how people are able to perceive colour, how hunger is regulated by the brain  As a science psychology demands that researchers ask precise questions about such issues and that they test their ideas though systematic observation. Provides a way of building knowledge that is relatively accurate and dependable As psychology has evolved its focus methods and explanatory models have changes, psychology developed from philosophical speculations about the mind into a modern science  Psychology comes from two greek words, psyche meaning the soul and logos referring to the study of a subject o 16 thcentury psyche was used to refer to the soul spirit or th mind as distinguished from the body not until the 18 century psychology gain more than rare usage Psychology’s intellectual parents are the disciplines of philosophy and physiology  wundt (founder of psychology) mounted campaign to make psychology an independent study  Succeeded in establishing leipzing first formal psychology lab  1879 psychology’s date of birth  Modeled after chem and physics  primary focus was consciousness - awareness of immediate experience G. Hall: th  19 century launched first psychology journal  1892 driving force behind APA (American psychology association) elected first pres Battle of the schools: Structuralism emerged through the leadership from titchener, vision of wundt work  Based on the nothing that the task of psychology s to analyze the consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related o Wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experience such as sensations, feelings and images o Concerned with the sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch  Depended on introspection the careful systematic self observation of ones own conscious experience Functionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than structure  James impressed with Darwin: applied the idea of natural selection to humans o Consciousness obviously is an important characteristic of species o Psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of consciousness o Consciousness is a steam continuous flow of thought Behaviouralism is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable bahviour  Watson focus primarily on that can be observed directly  Mental processes were not a proper subject for scientific study because they are ultimately private events o Often referred to as stimulus response psychology Gestalt psychology concerned with perception  Continue to study conscious experience rather than overt behavior Freud:  Psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders but focusing on unconscious determinates of behavior  The unconscious contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence over behavior Skinner:  Radical behaviorism  Organisms behavior is influenced by its biological endowment, understand and predict behaviors without resorting to psychological explanations  Repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and do not repeat responses that lead to neutral of negative outcomes  Free will in an illusion Humanism:  Theoretical orientation tat emphasis the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth  Behavior governed by each individuals sense of self or self concept Applied Psychology: branch of psychology concerned with everyday practical problems Clinical: branch of psych concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders Cognition: mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge involved thinking or conscious experience ethnocentrism tendency to view ones own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign ways evolutionary psychology: behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations  natural selection favors behaviors that enhance organisms reproductive success positive psychology: theory and research to better understand he positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observation  Conclusions are based on direct observation rather than reasoning speculation traditional beliefs or common sense Theory: system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations  Links apparently unrelated observations and tries to explain them Sociohistorical: society and psychology influence each other Culture: widely shared customs beliefs values norms institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations CHAPTER 2: RESEARCH ENTERPRISE IN PSYCHOLOGY Hypothesis: tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables:  Are any measurable conditions, events or behaviors that are controlled or observed in study Theory: system or interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations  Make the leap from description of behavior to understanding Operational definition describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure a controlled variable Participants/ subjects: persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study Data collection procedures fro making empirical observations and measurements Observations converted into numbers- raw data statistics analyze their data and decide whether the hypo
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