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Chapter 14&15

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Don Morgenson

Psych Notes Chapter 14 • Medical model: proposes it is useful to think of abnormal behaviour as a disease • Diagnosis: distinguishing one illness from another • Etiology: apparent causation and developmental history of an illness • Prognosis: forecast about the probable course • Epidemiology: distribution in a population • Thomas Szasz: o Says medical model not useful, abnormal behaviour is deviation from social norms o Diagnosis relies on deviance, maladaptive behaviour, personal distress, these are on a spectrum and value judgments must be made • David Rosenhan: o Tests where false patients told the truth about everything but pretended to hear voices, all were admitted • American Psychiatric Association wrote Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders o Judgements on 5 axes o Axis 1: disorders of infancy (autism, etc.) organic mental disorders (dysfunction of brain tissue, substance-related disorders, schizophrenia and other psychosis, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, dissociative disorders, sexual and gender-identity disorders, eating disorders o Axis 2: personality disorders or mental retardation o Axis 3: general medical conditions diabetes etc.) o Axis 4: psychosocial and environmental problems o Axis 5: global assessment of functioning scale 1-100 Axis 1 disorders: Anxiety Biological factors: genetic predisposition shown by twins, neurotransmitters such as GABA, serotonin Conditioning: may be acquired through classical conditioning and maintained through operant, people prepared by evolution, observational learning Cognitive factors: certain thinking styles make certain people more vulnerable, misinterpret harmless situations, and focus on threats Stress- stress related Disorder Definition Result Generalized anxiety disorder Free floating, non-specific Trembling, muscle-tension, stress diarrhea, dizziness, sweating Phobic disorder Persistent irrational fear of Interference with daily object or situation behaviour, trembling and palpitation Panic disorder Recurrent attacks of sudden Can lead to agoraphobia- overwhelming anxiety fear of leaving home Obsessive-compulsive Persistent, uncontrollable 4 factors undermine disorder thoughts and urges to symptoms: obsessions and engage in a senseless ritual checking, symmetry and order, cleanliness and washing, hoarding Post-traumatic stress Elicited by traumatic events Nightmares, flashbacks, disorder increased sense of vulnerability Somatoform Disorders Genuine physical ailments caused in part by the psyche Personality factors: self-centered, suggestible, excitable, highly emotional Cognitive factors: excessive attention on psychological process, equating health with absence of discomfort Disorder Definition Somatization disorder History of diverse physical complaints appearing psychological in origin Conversion disorder Significant loss of function with no organic basis Hypochondriasis Excessive preoccupation with health concerns Dissociative Disorders Lose contact with portions of memory Dissociative amnesia: sudden loss of memory of important personal information, such as single traumatic event or time around the event Dissociative fugue: entire lives forgotten Dissociative identity disorder: used to be multiple personality Mood disorders Emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over into perceptual, social, physical thought process Major depressive disorders: persistent feelings of sadness and despair, anxiety irritation and brooding Dysthymic disorder: not bad enough to be major depressive but is chronic Bipolar disorder: manic and depressive stages Clyothymic: chronic but milder bipolar disorder Seasonal affective disorder, post-partum, • Females attempt suicide more often while males have committed suicides • Genetic factors are influence • Norepinephrine and serotonin • Reduced hippocampal volume • Perfectionists; self-oriented, other-oriented or socially prescribed Sociotropic: over concerned with avoiding internal difficulties with interpersonal relations Autonomous: oriented toward own independence and achievement Negative cognitive triad: negative view of self, world, and future Learned helplessness: giving up due to exposer to unavoidable events Interpersonal issues: lacking important social reinforces Negative thinking study: people who weren’t depressed were tested for negative thinking process for likelihood of depression and it was accurate. Prospective design: not a hindsight experiment but moves forward in time Schizophrenic Disorder Disturbed thought process, delusions (false beliefs maintained despite being out of touch with reality, hallucinations (sensory perceptions in absence or gross distortion of perception input), disorganized speech and deterioration of adaptive behaviour (hygiene, routine functioning), disturbed emotions such as wrong emotion or flat emotion Paranoid type: delusions of persecution or grandeur Catatonic type: muscular rigidity or random muscular activity, may remain motionless Disorganized type: severe deterioration of adaptive behaviour Undifferentiated type: mixture of other three types Positive symptoms: behaviour excess, hallucinations, wild ideas (frontal lobe) Negative symptoms: flattened emotions, social withdrawal (temporal love) Found during adolescence or early childhood Hereditary factors: excess dopamine (antipsychotic drugs bind to dopamine receptors and block normal dopamine activity, D2 one receptor’s over activity is linked to schizophrenia) Enlarged brain ventricles Neurodevelopment hypotheses: caused by disruptions in normal maturation process of brain before birth or at birth such as malnutrition or viral infection Expressed emotion (degree to which family reacts critically or emotionally to patient) influences the course of the illness Eating disorders Genetic factors, personality factors such as perfectionism or impulsivity Contribution of cultural values Role of family Cognitive: all or nothing thinking, maladaptive beliefs Anorexia nervosa: not eating Bulimia nervosa: binge and guilty purging Bing eating: binging without the purging Axis 2 disorders: Personality disorders are inflexible personality traits causing distress due to inflexible personality traits formed in late childhood or early ado
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