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Appendix B psych.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Kathy Foxall

Appendix B – Statistical Methods • Statistics: the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data • Frequency Distribution: an orderly arrangement of scores, indicating the frequency of each score • Histogram: a bar graph representing the data from a frequency distribution • Frequency Polygon: a line figure used to represent data from a frequency distribution • Descriptive Statistics: used to organize and summarize data Measuring Central Tendency • Mean: the arithmetic average • Median: falls in center of distribution of ordered from least to greatest • Mode: score that occurs most frequently • Negatively Skewed Distribution: most scores pile up at the high end of the scale • Positively Skewed Distribution: most scores pile up at the low end of the scale • In skewed distributions irregular stats pull the mean and median away from the mode Measuring Variability • Variability: how much the scores tend to vary or depart from the mean score • Standard Deviation: an index of the amount of variability in a set of data, less variability means lower standard deviation The Normal Distribution • A symmetrical bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many human characteristics are dispersed in the population • A good indicator to compare people with • Percentile Score: indicates the percentage of people wh
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