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# Appendix B psych.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University

Psychology

PS101

Kathy Foxall

Winter

Description

Appendix B – Statistical Methods
• Statistics: the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data
• Frequency Distribution: an orderly arrangement of scores, indicating the frequency of
each score
• Histogram: a bar graph representing the data from a frequency distribution
• Frequency Polygon: a line figure used to represent data from a frequency distribution
• Descriptive Statistics: used to organize and summarize data
Measuring Central Tendency
• Mean: the arithmetic average
• Median: falls in center of distribution of ordered from least to greatest
• Mode: score that occurs most frequently
•
Negatively Skewed Distribution: most scores pile up at the high end of the scale
• Positively Skewed Distribution: most scores pile up at the low end of the scale
• In skewed distributions irregular stats pull the mean and median away from the mode
Measuring Variability
• Variability: how much the scores tend to vary or depart from the mean score
• Standard Deviation: an index of the amount of variability in a set of data, less variability
means lower standard deviation
The Normal Distribution
• A symmetrical bell-shaped curve that represents the pattern in which many human
characteristics are dispersed in the population
• A good indicator to compare people with
• Percentile Score: indicates the percentage of people wh

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