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Chapter 15

Chapter 15 PS101.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Carolyn Ensley

PS101 Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Week 12 The Elements of the Treatment Process -Sigmund Freud is credited with launching modern psychotherapy ad with calling into question the view that we are logical rational beings Treatments: How Many Types are There? -Psychotherapists use many treatment methods, including discussion, advice, emotional support, persuasion, conditioning procedures, relaxation training, role-playing, drug therapy, biofeedback, and group therapy -There may be over 400 approaches to treatment 1. Insight Therapies Talk therapy Clients engage in complex verbal interactions with their therapists it can be conducted with an individual or with a group 2. Behaviour Therapies Based on the principles of learning behaviour therapists make direct efforts to alter problematic responses and maladaptive habits 3. Biomedical Therapies Interventions into a persons biological functioning the most widely used procedures are drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy Clients: Who Seeks Therapy? -Canadians are concerned with their mental health -In the therapeutic triad, the greatest diversity of all is seen among the clients -The two most common presenting problems are excessive anxiety and depression -People often delay for many years before finally seeking treatment for their psychological problems -A client in treatment does not necessarily have an identifiable psychological disorder Therapists: Who Provides Professional Treatment? -People troubled by personal problems often solicit help from their friends, relatives, clergy, and primary care physicians -Primary care physicians are extremely important I terms of most Canadians access to mental health resources Psychologists -Clinical psychologists training emphasizes the treatment of full-fledged disorders -Counselling psychologists training is slanted toward the treatment of everyday adjustment problems -Psychologists receive most of their training in universities or independent professional schools they then serve a one-year internship in a clinical setting, such as a hospital, followed by one or two years of postdoctoral fellowship training Psychiatrists -Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders -May psychiatrists also treat everyday behavioural problems -People seeking help for psychological difficulties who access the medical system often begin with their family physician -In the provision of therapy, psychiatrists increasingly emphasize drug therapies, which the other, nonmedical helping professions cannot provide PS101 Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Week 12 Other Mental Health Professionals -Ex. Clinical social workers and psychiatric nurses -Social workers typically have a masters degree and typically work with patients and their families to ease the patients integration back into the community -Many kinds of counsellors also provide therapeutic services Insight Therapies -Insight therapies involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behaviour Psychoanalysis -Psychoanalysis is an insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives, and defences through techniques such as free association and transference Probing the Unconscious -In free association, clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible -In free association, clients expound on anything that comes to mind, regardless of how trivial, silly, or embarrassing it might be -In dream analysis, the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the clients reams Interpretation -Interpretation refers to the therapists attempts to explain the inner significance of the clients thoughts, feelings, memories, and behaviours -Analysts do not interpret everything and they generally dont try to dazzles clients with startling revelations -Analysis move forward inch by inch, offering interpretations that should be just out of the clients own reach Resistance -Resistance refers to largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres intended to hinder the progress of therapy -Ex. Clients showing up late for their session Transference -Transference occurs when clients unconsciously start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their life -Ex. Feeling your therapist is your overprotective mother -Psychoanalysists often encourage transference so that clients can re-enact relationships with crucial people in the context of therapy Client-Centred Therapy -Client-centred therapy is an insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy -Client-centred therapy seeks insights that are quite different from the repressed conflicts that psychoanalysts go afterPS101 Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Week 12 -Client-centred therapists seek insights that are quite different from the repressed conflicts that psychoanalysts go after Therapeutic Alliance: The Importance of Therapy Climate -The importance of the therapeutic alliance,, more broadly considered as the nature of the bond between therapist and client is central to most other contemporary therapeutic orientations -The process of therapy is not as important as the emotional climate in which the therapy takes place -Client-centred therapists must provide three conditions: 1. Genuineness The therapist must be genuine with the client 2. Unconditional positive regard The therapist must also show complete nonjudgmental acceptance of the client as a person 3. Empathy The therapist must provide accurate empathy for the client Therapeutic Process -In client-centred therapy, the client and therapist work together as equals -The therapist provides relatively little guidance and keeps interpretation ad advice to a minimum -The therapists key task is clarification -By working with clients to clarify their feelings,, client-centred therapists hope to gradually build toward more far-reaching insights -Emotional-focused couples therapy is to find underlying emotions Th
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