Ch. 13 Path constraints: limit that rules out some operation Problem space: the set of all states that can be reached in solving a problem, Hill climbing strategy: commonly used strategy in problem solving if people use this strategy, then whenever their efforts toward solving a problem give them a choice, they will choose the option that carries them closer to the goal Meansend analysis: you compare your current state to the goal state, and then ask what means do i have to make these more alike The tumor problem: 75 solve the problem when using hint 10 without Mapping: the process of guring out how aspects of one argumentsituation correspond to aspects of some other situationargument crucial for a problem solvers ability to nd analogies we can improve problem solving by encouraging people to pay attention to the problems underlying dynamic those who take an understand each soloution approach, were able to solve 90 of the problems those who took the memorize approach, only solved 69 it is helpful to break problems down into subproblems that can be solved part by part rather than all at once Deep structure: captures the pattern of casual relationships and how the parts of the problem are interrelated Surface structure: captures how the causal relationships are manifested novices: nd analogies experts: think of problems in terms of their deep structure and type of solution Ill dened problem: a problem for which the goal state is specied only in general terms and the operators available for reaching the goal state are not obvious at the start

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