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Chapter 4

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Anneke Olthof

Intro to LearningChapter 4What makes effective conditioned and unconditioned stimulioInitial responses to the stimuliCS does not elicit CR initially does so after being associated with USUS is able to elicit target response from onset without any special trainingDefinitions were stated in terms of elicitation of the response to be conditioned Identifying potential CS and US requires comparing resposes elicited by each stimulus before conditioningMakes it relativeEvent may serve as CS relative to one stimulus and a US to anotheroNovelty of conditioned and unconditioned stimuliImportant in classical conditioningLatent inhibition or CS preexposureLatent inhibition effectCSpreexposure effectif stimulus is highly familiar will not be as readily associated with CS as novel stimuliInvolve two phasesoSubjects first given repeated presentations of CS by itselfPreexposure phase because it comes before Pavlovian conditioning trialsAfter preexposure CS paired with US using conventional classical conditioning proceduresSubjects slower to acquire responding because of CS preexposureoDisrupts or inhibits learningSimilar to habituationoBoth serve to limit processing and attention to stimuli presented by themselves and therefore inconsequentialDominant interpretation is that CS preexposure reduces attention to the CSoDisrupts subsequent learning about this stimulusThe US preexposure effectExperiments on importance of US novelty similar to CSpreexposure experimentsoSubjects first given repeated exposure to US by itselfThen paired with US and progress of learning is monitoredFamiliarity with US before pairing with CS slows down response to CS than novel CSUS pairingsoUSpreexposure effectoCS and US intensity and salienceAnother important stimulus for classical conditioning is intensity of the conditioned and unconditioned stimuliMost biological and physiological effects related to intensity of stimulus inputStimulus intensity contributes to stimulus salienceCan make stimulus more salient or significant by making it more intense and more attentiongettingCan also make it more relevant to biological needs of organismAnother way to increase salience of CS to make it more similar to kinds of stimuli an animal is likely to encounter in its natural environmentoCSUS relevance or belongingness1
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