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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 – Aversive Control.docx

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Anneke Olthof

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Chapter 10Aversive Control Avoidance and PunishmentInformationExampleResearchAvoidance individual has to make a specific response to prevent an aversive stimulus from occurringnegative contingencybetween instrumental response and aversive stimulusGrab a handrail toif response occurs stimulus is omittedavoid slipping or takeincreases the occurrence of behavior an umbrella to avoidfinal result less contact with aversive stimulusgetting rained onactive avoidance achieving increasing periods of safety by doing something no pleasures are derived from these experiences Origins of Avoidance Behaviour proved that avoidance conditioning is different fromoriginated in studies of classical standard classical conditioning conditioning Vladimir Bechterev 1913 interested in studying associative learning in humansplacing finger on metal plate warning stimulus was then presented CS then a shock US participants lifted their finger due to shock and eventually learned to lift their finger to the CSCR does not cancel or change the presentation of the USThe Discriminated Avoidance ProcedureBrogden Lipman and Culler 1938 method similar to the one used by Brogden tested two groups of guinea pigs indiscriminated or signaled avoidancerotating wheel apparatus CStone USshock shock caused them to rotate the wheelCS groupshock presented two seconds after beginning of the toneavoidance groupthe shock followed the tone when animals did not make the conditioned responseavoidance group learned to make the involves discrete trials CR 100 of the time CS groupeach trial is initiated by the warning signals or CSnever achieved this levelevents that occur after depend on what participant doessubject makes target response before the shock is deliveredCS is turned off and US is omitted successful avoidanceconducted in shuttle boxtrial box consisted of two compartmentssubject fails to make required response during CSUSat the start of the trial CS is intervalshock appears and remains on until the response presentedoccurs escape trialif subject crosses over to the otherduring early stages of training trials are usually escape 1
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