Chapter 2: The Self in a Social World
-social surroundings shape how we think about ourselves. As individuals in a group
of a different culture, race, or sex, we notice how we differ and how others are
reacting to our difference.
Looking good to others motivates our social behaviour. Concern for self-image
drives much of our behaviour, our actions are most often strategic.
-Self-interest colours our judgements about others and ourselves. We usually
attribute more responsibility to others for problems rather than ourselves.
Your ideas and feelings about yourself affect how you interpret events, how you
recall them, and how you respond to others. Others in turn help shape your sense of
-Self-concept: Who am I? How we come to know ourselves.
Our thinking is partly automatic (impulsive, effortless, and without our awareness)
and partly controlled (reflective, deliberate, and conscious)
-Schemas: mental templates that intuitively guide our perceptions and
interpretations of our experience.
-Impact bias: overestimating the enduring impact of emotion-causing events
-Affective forecasts: People’s predictions of their future emotions. These affect their
actual feelings when an event occurs, influence their decisions.
-Psychological immune system: includes peoples’ strategies for rationalizing,
discounting, forgiving, and limiting emotional trauma. We accommodate to
disabilities, romantic breakups, exam failures, tenure denials, and personal or team
defeats, with our psychological immune system more readily than we would expect.
-Dual attitude systems: differing automatic and controlled attitudes toward the
Looking-glass-self- we see our reflection in how we appear to others. The way we
think others see us.
-Social comparisons: evaluating one’s abilities and opinions by comparing oneself to
-Self-esteem: a person’s overall self-evaluation or sense of self-worth
-Dark glasses: to notice and remember others’ worst behaviours and to think their
partners don’t love them. This is a typical view of people with low self-esteem. -Secure self-esteem: rooted more in feeling good about who one is rather than
because of their grades, looks, money, or other approval.. Secure self-esteem is
conducive to long-term well-being.
-Social-identity- the “we” aspect of our self-concept.
Self-schema: beliefs about self that organize and guide the processing of self-
-Schemas: Schemas: mental templates by which we organize our worlds.
-Self-reference effect: the tendency to process efficiently and remember well
information related to oneself. When info is relevant to our self-concepts we process
it quickly and remember it well.
-Possible selves: images of what we dream of or dread becoming in the future.
-Learned helplessness: the hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or
animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
-Self-serving bias: the tendency to perceive oneself favourably.
-Self-serving attributions: a form of self-serving bias; the tendency to attribute
positive outcomes to oneself and negative outcomes to other factors.
False consensus effect: the tendency to overestimate the commonality of one’s