Textbook Notes (362,730)
Canada (158,028)
Psychology (1,877)
PS276 (69)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Reading Notes.pdf

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Diane Glebe

READING NOTES Chapter 12: Achievement Achievement is the psychosocial domain concerning behaviours and feelings in evaluative situations Achievement as anAdolescent Issue • The fact that adolescence is a time of preparation for adult work raises questions about the nature of preparation young people receive • Although differences in school performance are apparent as early as first grade, not until adolescence do individuals begin to fully appreciate the implications of these differences for immediate and future success • The educational and occupational decisions made during adolescence are more numerous and the consequences of such decisions are much more serious than when made in childhood • Puberty andAchievement ◦ The drop in motivation accompanying the transition into secondary school may be related to puberty because it introduces new issues like dating and sex ◦ Puberty may lead adolescents to worry about whether they are trying to hard to do well and if it makes them less attractive to classmates ◦ Puberty intensifies the differences between males and females and it makes them think about what is “appropriate” achievement-related behaviour for each sex • Cognitive Change andAchievement ◦ Areason for the prominence of achievement-related issues during adolescence relates to the advent of more sophisticated forms of thinking ▪ The ability to think in hypothetical terms • Social Roles andAchievement ◦ The transition from school to work is a socially defined transition ▪ Apassage that society has determined will be negotiated during adolescence Achievement Motives and Beliefs Achievement Motivation • The extent to which an individual strives for success is referred to as his or her need for achievement ◦ It is an intrinsically motivated desire to perform well that operates even in the absence of external rewards • Adolescents who have a strong need for achievement come from families in which parents: ◦ Set high performance standards ◦ Have rewarded achievement success during childhood ◦ Have encouraged autonomy and success • Achievement also takes place in the context of a warm parent-child relationship in which the child forms close identifications with his or her parents ◦ In short, they achieve when parents are authoritative and encourage success • Fear of Failure ◦ Afactor that interacts with an adolescent's need for achievement is fear of failure ▪ Afear of the consequences of failing in achievement situations ▪ It is often manifested in anxiety during tests or evaluative situations and interfere with successful performance ◦ Individuals with a high fear of failure often come from family environments in which parents set unrealistic standards and react negatively to failure ◦ Studies from affluent adolescents suggest that it is not the pressure exerted by parents that creates mental health problems but rather the parents criticisms when expectations are not met ◦ Students who have trouble persisting at tasks and who fear failure become underachievers ▪ Individuals whose actual school performance is lower than what would be expected on the basis of objective measures of their aptitude or intelligence • Self-Handicapping ◦ Some adolescents want to appear uninterested in school ▪ These students may use self-handicapping strategies such as joking in class, studying last minute, or partying excessively the night before an exam – as a way of self protection • If they don't do well on an assessment they can use the excuse that “I failed because I didn't try hard, not because I'm stupid” ◦ Boys who self-handicap attribute their poor performance to a lack of effort ◦ Girls who self-handicap attribute their poor performance to emotional problems • Two Types of Motivation ◦ Intrinsic motivation or mastery motivation ▪ Strive to achieve because of the pleasure they get out of learning and mastering the material ▪ Parents who encourage their autonomy, provide a cognitively stimulating home environment, and are supportive of school success are likely to develop a strong intrinsic motivation to succeed and perform better in school as a consequence ◦ Extrinsic motivation or performance motivation ▪ Strive to achieve because of the rewards they get for performing well and the punishments they receive for doing poorly ▪ When adults attempt to control achievement by rewarding good grades, punishing bad grades, or excessively supervising their performance, adolescents are likely to develop an extrinsic orientation • They are less likely to do well in school The Importance of Beliefs • Stereotype Threat ◦ When students are told that members of their ethnic group usually perform poorly on a particular test, their performance actually suffers ▪ Whereas the reverse is true when students are told that members of their ethnic group usually perform better than others ▪ This is the stereotype threat effect ◦ Arecent study found that the impact of stereotype threat on Black students' performance weakened considerably both after Barack Obama received the Democratic presidential nomination and after he became the first Black president ▪ the “Obama effect” • BeliefsAbout Intelligence ◦ Three factors interact to predict students' behaviour in school: ▪ Whether the student believes that intelligence is fixed or malleable ▪ Whether the student is oriented more towards extrinsic or intrinsic rewards ▪ Whether the student is confident about his or her abilities • Self-efficacy ◦ Students who believe intelligence is a malleable approach are more likely to be intrinsically motivated • Attributions for Success and Failure ◦ Researchers who are interested in what are called achievement attributions have studied how the explanations that individuals give for their success or failure influence their performance ▪ Individuals attribute their performance to a combination of four factors: • Ability • Effort • Task difficulty • Luck ◦ When individuals succeed and attribute their success to internal causes, they are more likely to approach future tasks confidently and with self-assurance ▪ e.g.) effort ◦ If they attribute their success to external factors outside their control, they are likely to remain unsure about their abilities ▪ e.g.) luck ◦ Students who are led to believe that their efforts do not make a difference develop what psychologists call learned helplessness ▪ The belief that failure is inevitable • The Drop in Motivation During the Transition Into Secondary School ◦ In Elementary school, teachers emphasize mastery of information ▪ However, in secondary school, professors emphasize grades ▪ This shift undermines students' intrinsic motivation and their confidence, which in turn diminishes their performance Environmental Influences onAchievement The Influence of the Home Environment • Parental Values and Expectations ◦ Parental encouragement of success is manifested in different ways: ▪ Parents who encourage success set higher standards, have higher aspirations for their child, which contribute to school success ▪ Parents who encourage success have values that are consistent with the messages children receive from their teachers ▪ Parents who encourage success are more likely to be involved in their child's education, more likely to attend school programs, help with course selection, and maintain interest in school activities and assignments ◦ Studies show that encouraging and expecting school achievement in school and being involved in school-based activities are both effective forms of parental involvement ▪ Whereas helping with homework is not Parents' values And Expectations AdolescentAchievement Authoritative Cultural Parenting Capital • Authoritative Parenting ◦ Numerous studies have showed that parenting that is warm, firm, and fair, is linked to success during adolescence ◦ Parenting that is punitive, harsh, over controlling, or inept is associated with lower engagement and diminished achievement ▪ Extreme parental permissiveness, not authoritarianism is associated with higher rates of dropping out of school • The Quality of the Home Environment ◦ The quality is measured in the presence of items such as a television, dictionary, newspaper, vacuum cleaner, and other indications of family income ▪ This is more strong correlated with success than the actual facility of the school ◦ It also depends on the extent to which adolescent's parents provide the youngster to cultural capital ▪ That is, exposure to art, music, literature, and other elements of “high culture” ▪ It exerts a positive impact on achievement above and beyond the effects of parents' own level of education ◦ ManyAmerican youngsters are affected by their parents stress due to their economic s
More Less

Related notes for PS276

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.