Textbook Notes (369,160)
Canada (162,427)
Psychology (1,978)
PS282 (56)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Drugs and Behaviour.doc

6 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PS282
Professor
Bruce Mc Kay

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Chapter 12 o Natural Health Products o Health Canada is responsible for establishing standards for the safety and quality of all foods and drugs sold in this country o FDA (food and drugs act)  According to FDA any substance “manufactured, sold or represented for use in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a disease, disorder or abnormal physical state, r its symptoms, in human beings or animal” is a drug  Foods are defined as any article manufactured, sold, or represented for use as food or drink for human beings o 1990’s officials at health Canada became concerned with the rapidly growing market in natural health products, vitamins and mineral supplements; herbal remedies; homeopathic medicines; traditional medicines, such as traditional Chinese and Ayuvedic medicines; probiotics; amino acids; and essential fatty acids o St John’s Wort o Botanical name Hypericum perforatum o “The devil’s scourge” supposed to prevent possession by demons o Psychoactive uses: treatment of anxiety and depression o In Canada sold as NHP and licensed for recommended use “to relieve restlessness or nervousness and to help treat symptoms of sleep disorders” o Limited evidence of effectiveness o Hypericum extracts are  Superior to placebo in patients with major depression  Similarly effective as standard antidepressants  Have fewer side effects than standard antidepressants o SAMe o S-adenosyl-L-methionine is a naturally occurring substance found in the body o Active form of the amino acid methionine and acts as a “methyl donor” o 1970’s SAMe was tested in Italy for its effectiveness as an antidepressant, and a recent summary analysis found that SAMe was more effective than a placebo but no less effective than tricyclic antidepressants o NHP licensed for “help support a healthy mood balance” o Ginkgo biloba o Extracts from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba tree o Long history of medical use in China o In Canada, regulated as a NHP and sold with the recommended uses to “improve memory and cognitive function, enhance circulation, improve memory and cognitive function in adults” o Reduces blood clotting, proposed as a blood thinner which improves circulation o May improve memory with Alzheimer’s o Caffeine o “Temporarily restore mental alertness or wakefulness when experiencing fatigue or drowsiness” o In 2004, caffeine-based cerebral stimulants were transitioned from OTC’s to NHPs o Weight control products o In Canada, no NHPs or OTCs are currently licensed for sale as weight-control products o Before 2001 products containing phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a psychoactive drug of the amphetamine chemical class were available and considered safe and effective anorexic agents o Ayds, had strong sales in Canada during 1970’s and 80’s  Was sold in chocolate, mint, butterscotch and caramel flavors  Active ingredient was PPA  In 80’s people began expressing concern about the safety of products containing PPA  PPA shown to increase blood pressure, increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women shut down by 2001 o Misused drug for weight loss, ephedra (ma huang)  Many people used ephedra and caffeine to lose weight, were not sold or taken in combination  Promotes short term weight less, not evidence for long term  Linked to cardiac arrest  Transitioned from OTC to NHP o Sleep Aids o NHP, melatonin, a hormone which is licensed for recommended use of “increasing the total sleep time in people suffering from sleep restriction or altered sleep schedule” o Produced by pineal gland o Correlated with onset of nocturnal sleepiness o Over the Counter Drugs o Non prescription drugs o Self prescribed and self administrated o Regulation of Over-the-Counter Products o Manufacturer must seek a Notice of Compliance (NOC) from health Canada o Improved Labeling of Over-the-Counter Drugs o Safety and effectiveness depend greatly on consumers using them according to the directions and warnings on the label o Health Canada has uniform standards for labels, with minimum print size, required topics, and bold, bulleted headings indicating precautions and warnings o Over-the-Counter versus prescription Drugs o NAPPRA – National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities o The schedule in which a drug is placed is determined by that drug’s pharmacological and toxicological profile  Schedule 1: drugs that can be sold only with a prescription  Schedule 2: drugs that can be sold without a prescription but must be kept behind the counter  Schedule 2: drugs that can be sold without a prescription (OTC) and can be displayed in the pharmacy o A drug should be permitted for OTC sale unless because of p
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