Textbook Notes (369,160)
Canada (162,427)
Psychology (1,978)
PS282 (56)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12 Drugs and Behaviour.doc

6 Pages

Course Code
Bruce Mc Kay

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 6 pages of the document.
Chapter 12 o Natural Health Products o Health Canada is responsible for establishing standards for the safety and quality of all foods and drugs sold in this country o FDA (food and drugs act)  According to FDA any substance “manufactured, sold or represented for use in the diagnosis, treatment, mitigation or prevention of a disease, disorder or abnormal physical state, r its symptoms, in human beings or animal” is a drug  Foods are defined as any article manufactured, sold, or represented for use as food or drink for human beings o 1990’s officials at health Canada became concerned with the rapidly growing market in natural health products, vitamins and mineral supplements; herbal remedies; homeopathic medicines; traditional medicines, such as traditional Chinese and Ayuvedic medicines; probiotics; amino acids; and essential fatty acids o St John’s Wort o Botanical name Hypericum perforatum o “The devil’s scourge” supposed to prevent possession by demons o Psychoactive uses: treatment of anxiety and depression o In Canada sold as NHP and licensed for recommended use “to relieve restlessness or nervousness and to help treat symptoms of sleep disorders” o Limited evidence of effectiveness o Hypericum extracts are  Superior to placebo in patients with major depression  Similarly effective as standard antidepressants  Have fewer side effects than standard antidepressants o SAMe o S-adenosyl-L-methionine is a naturally occurring substance found in the body o Active form of the amino acid methionine and acts as a “methyl donor” o 1970’s SAMe was tested in Italy for its effectiveness as an antidepressant, and a recent summary analysis found that SAMe was more effective than a placebo but no less effective than tricyclic antidepressants o NHP licensed for “help support a healthy mood balance” o Ginkgo biloba o Extracts from the leaves of the ginkgo biloba tree o Long history of medical use in China o In Canada, regulated as a NHP and sold with the recommended uses to “improve memory and cognitive function, enhance circulation, improve memory and cognitive function in adults” o Reduces blood clotting, proposed as a blood thinner which improves circulation o May improve memory with Alzheimer’s o Caffeine o “Temporarily restore mental alertness or wakefulness when experiencing fatigue or drowsiness” o In 2004, caffeine-based cerebral stimulants were transitioned from OTC’s to NHPs o Weight control products o In Canada, no NHPs or OTCs are currently licensed for sale as weight-control products o Before 2001 products containing phenylpropanolamine (PPA), a psychoactive drug of the amphetamine chemical class were available and considered safe and effective anorexic agents o Ayds, had strong sales in Canada during 1970’s and 80’s  Was sold in chocolate, mint, butterscotch and caramel flavors  Active ingredient was PPA  In 80’s people began expressing concern about the safety of products containing PPA  PPA shown to increase blood pressure, increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women shut down by 2001 o Misused drug for weight loss, ephedra (ma huang)  Many people used ephedra and caffeine to lose weight, were not sold or taken in combination  Promotes short term weight less, not evidence for long term  Linked to cardiac arrest  Transitioned from OTC to NHP o Sleep Aids o NHP, melatonin, a hormone which is licensed for recommended use of “increasing the total sleep time in people suffering from sleep restriction or altered sleep schedule” o Produced by pineal gland o Correlated with onset of nocturnal sleepiness o Over the Counter Drugs o Non prescription drugs o Self prescribed and self administrated o Regulation of Over-the-Counter Products o Manufacturer must seek a Notice of Compliance (NOC) from health Canada o Improved Labeling of Over-the-Counter Drugs o Safety and effectiveness depend greatly on consumers using them according to the directions and warnings on the label o Health Canada has uniform standards for labels, with minimum print size, required topics, and bold, bulleted headings indicating precautions and warnings o Over-the-Counter versus prescription Drugs o NAPPRA – National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities o The schedule in which a drug is placed is determined by that drug’s pharmacological and toxicological profile  Schedule 1: drugs that can be sold only with a prescription  Schedule 2: drugs that can be sold without a prescription but must be kept behind the counter  Schedule 2: drugs that can be sold without a prescription (OTC) and can be displayed in the pharmacy o A drug should be permitted for OTC sale unless because of p
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.