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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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Todd Ferretti

Psycholinguistics – Chapter 3  information processing system o study of memory has long history in study of psychology o there is working memory and long term memory  William James calls them primary and secondary memory o two aspects of long-term memory  semantic and episodic  working memory o temporary storage of information that is being processed in any range of cognitive tasks o important that we have working memory with temporary storage for simple tasks  having a conversation  remember phone numbers o measured in several ways  most simple is memory span test  testing the number of items that can be recalled in the right order  typically 7 +/-2 items, outliers are rare o Baddeley-Hitch Model  visuospatial sketchpad central executive phonological loop  visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop are referred to as "slave system" to central executive  phonological loop  consists of phonological store and articulatory rehearsal system  phonological store  holds phonological representations for brief period of time  articulatory rehearsal system  enables us to rehears materials to prolong their stay in phonological store  overtly or covertly  can turn visual material into auditory material  words for examples  visuospatial sketchpad  temporarily maintains and manipulates visuospatial information  allows us to form visual images, manipulate then, turning words into images  central executive  determines what the slave systems should be doing at any given time o tests of the model  similar sound errors are prevalent  people will mistake similar sounding words more often than visually similar letters  simultaneous visual and auditory stimulation leads to reduced memory overall  remember letters on a page while repeating sounds over and over  working memory relies on a speech-like mode of representation  pronunciation time of words is the main factor of memory span  word length effect holds true for visual stimulation  word-length effect - length of the word  phonological loop explains deficit in working memory  people who have lost their ability to control overt speech, but still have inner speech and working memory  individuals with brain damage that impairs central rehearsal show poor memory span  central executive system  two contrasting thoughts 1 Psycholinguistics – Chapter 3  tasks that involved divided attention might be easier for those with larger working memories  trade off between storage and processing  tasks that require both would require larger working memories  correlation between memory span and reading comprehension  higher memory span = higher reading comprehension  correlation between working memory capacity and performance on stroop task  higher working memory = better score on stroop task  those with better working memory capacities did better on antiaccade task  antiaccade task  individuals focus on middle of display but respond to target on left/right of fixation point, but a distraction is presented on the opposite side  people with higher working memory tend to be less distracted and able to keep their attention better  people with high math anxiety had smaller working memory  long term memory o defined as memory structure that holds permanent knowledge o two aspects of long-term memory  semantic memory  refers to knowledge of general facts  refers to organized knowledge of words, concepts, symbols and objects  includes motor skills, general knowledge, spatial knowledge and social skills  when chess masters look at chess board with meaningfully placed pieces, they can recall almost all pieces, while novices cannot  if pieces are placed haphazardly, then novices and masters will remember the same amount  studies show that experts store units in long term memory while novices do not  episodic memory  deals with personally experienced facts  not just information retrieval, but also retrieving experiences and emotions attached to that memory  separate memory system from semantic memory system  people must have autonoetic consciousness to have episodic memory  autonoetic consciousness  consciousness of subjectively experienced time, past, present or future  biological differences, people can have semantic memory without episodic memory  deficits in episodic memory causes déjà vu sense of familiarity  episodic memory may be a recent evolution  Relevance for Language Processing o working memory only able to hold about seven units of information o we group chunks of words into constituents so that we only have to remember groups of constituents o semantic memory contains information on the speech sounds and words that we retrieve during pattern recognition o once we process the gist of the se
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