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Chapter 9

Clinical Psychology Chapter 9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PS381
Professor
John Stephens
Semester
Fall

Description
Paper: critiquing the intervention *Don’t focus on the psychopathology Hand in by November 22 get it back by the end of lectures but can hand it in up until two days before the final Don’t choose two therapies to compare and contrast Pros and Cons use the word “I” Chapter 9- Bahavioural Assessment Behavioural Assessment Methods - Behavioural interviews - Structured interviews - Questionnaires - Behaviour rating scales - Analogue techniques - Self-monitoring - Direct observation - Psychophysiological recording Tradition • Sample – Identify characteristics of interest – When test responses are viewed as a sample, one assumes that they parallel the way in which a person is likely to behave in a nontest situation – Not big on Science because science usually leads to inferences • Sign – Inference about performance or response – When test responses are viewed as signs, an inference is made that the performance is an indirect or symbolic manifestation of some other characteristic – Symbolic of other characteristics • Functional analysis – B.F. Skinner • Precise analysis of stimuli that precede behavior and consequences that follow • Behaviours are learned and maintained because of the consequences that follow them • All about being accurate in your observation • Learned behaviors • The behavior must be described in observable, measurable terms so that its rate of occurrence can be recorded reliably • Influence of consequence • Crying in public can lead to anxiety • Precise description • Antecedent conditions • Consequent events • Can use this knowledge to understand motive and alter behavior • Organismic variables • Include physical, physiological, or cognitive characteristics of the individual that are important for both the conceptualization of the client’s problem and the ultimate treatment that is administered • SORC method: (1970) (on exam) – a model for conceptualizing clinical problems from a behavioral perspective – Stimulus to behavior – Organismic variables (physical, physiological, or cognitive characteristics) related to the problematic behaviour – Response or problematic behaviour – Consequence • Behavioral Assessment is an ongoing process – Before, during, after • It informs the initial selection of treatment strategies, provides a means of feedback regarding the efficacy of the treatment strategies employed as they are enacted in the treatment process, allows evaluation of the overall effectiveness of treatment once completed, and highlights situational factors that may lead to recurrence of the problematic behaviours • Diagnostic formulations provide descriptions of maladaptive behaviours or potential targets for intervention • Patient environment is important to assess because of the relevance to treatment planning and the setting of realistic treatment goals • Continual, thorough assessment • Could be a simple checklist • Many funding organizations use these kinds of perspectives (i.e. insurance company that is paying for therapy) • Iterative Model: The Role of Assessment Behaviour Therapy – Initial Assessment • Diagnosis, treatment context, client resources – Treatment planning/goal setting – Monitoring treatment progress – Treatment completion – Maintenance of treatment gains Behavioural Interview • Define ultimate outcomes of desired behavior change • Identify chain of changes necessary to achieve outcomes • Short term vs. long term • Structured diagnostic interviews are also an option • Goals • Identify SORC variables • Therapy • Establish patient • Expectations • Strengths • Past attempts • Did anything work? Did anything not work? Observational Method • Naturalistic – Direct observation – Ethical standards – Infrequently used in clinical contexts – Requires reliability and validity • Home observation – Mealtime Family Interaction Coding System (MICS) – Use of a videotaped interaction of the entire family eating together – Trained coders watch and rate the family using 6 rating scales • Good for reliability and validity • Rating scales: Task accomplishment, affect management, interpersonal involvement, behavioral control, communication, roles • School observation – Influence of untrained observers – Direct Observation Form (DOF) • Used to assess problem behaviors in school settings • Assessors rate frequency of 88 problem items during several observation periods in morning and afternoon • Helpful in forming diagnostic formulations Example: Direct Observation Form - Sample Items from the Direct Observation Form (DOF) of the Child Behaviour Checklist 1. Argues 2. Defiant or talks back to staff 3. Cruel, bullies, or mean to others 4. Disturbs other children 5. Physically attacks people 6. Disrupts group activities 7. Nervous, high-strung, or tense 8. Apathetic, unmotivated, or won’t try 9. Shy or timid behavior 10.Stares blankly 11.Unhappy, sad, or depressed 12.Withdrawn, doesn’t get involved with others • Hospital observation – More controlled environment – Time Sample Behavior Checklist (TSBC) • Observations made at regular intervals • Daily behavioral profile can be constructed by compiling observations • Used with chronic psychiatric patients – High inter-observer reliability • Controlled observation – Clinical or natur
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