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Chapter 13

Chapter 13.docx

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School
Wilfrid Laurier University
Department
Psychology
Course
PS381
Professor
Richard Walsh- Bowers
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 13ClientCenteredTherapyOriginsAftercompletinghisPhDatColumbiaUniversityhebeganworkatachildguidanceclinicinRochesterTherehecameintouchwiththewilltherapyofOttoRankandtherelationshiptherapyofJessieTaftRankbelievedthatpatientsshouldbeallowedfreeopportunitytoexerttheirwillsandtodominatethetherapistTaftasocialworkerbroughtRanksnotionstoAmericaemphasizingtherelationshipbetweenthetherapistandthepatientThePhenomenologicalWorldPhenomenologyteachesthatbehavioristotallydeterminedbythephenomenalfieldofthepersonThephenomenalfieldiseverythingexperiencedbythepersonatanygivenpointintimeThereforetounderstandpeoplesbehavioronemustknowsomethingabouttheirphenomenalfieldthatiswhattheworldislikeforthemphenomenalselfthatpartofthephenomenalfieldthatthepersonexperiencesastheIObviouslythisisnotanobjectiveexperienceInadditionphenomenologicaltheorystatesthatthebasichumanurgeistopreserveandenhancethephenomenalselfInasensethenselfesteembecomesthefountainheadofbehaviorProblemsinadjustmentarisewhenthephenomenalselfisthreatenedHoweverwhatisathreatforonepersonisnotnecessarilyathreatforanotherInessenceapersonwillexperiencethreatwheneverheorsheperceivesthatthephenomenalselfisindangerTheoreticalPropositionsEarlyonRogers1951formulatedaseriesofpropositionsthatsetthetoneforaclientcenteredviewofpersonalityHestatedthatindividualsexistinaworldofexperienceofwhichtheyarethecenterThisexperiencecanonlybeknownbythepersonThebasichumantendencyistowardmaintainingandenhancingtheexperiencingselforselfactualizationThisiswhatproducestheforwardmovementoflifea1forceuponwhichthetherapistwillrelyheavilyintherapeuticcontactswiththeclientButthisforwardmovementcanoccuronlywhenthechoicesoflifeareclearlyperceivedandadequatelysymbolizedThestructureoftheselfisformedoutofinteractionswiththeenvironmentandinparticularoutofevaluationsofthepersonbyothersTheselfisanorganizedfluidandyetconsistentpatternofperceptionsofthecharacteristicsandrelationshipsoftheIortheMealongwiththevaluesattachedtothemDuringthelifeoftheindividualavarietyofexperiencesoccurFollowinganexperiencethreepossibilitiespresentthemselvesatheexperiencecanbesymbolizedororganizedintosomerelationshipwiththeselfbtheexperiencecanbeignoredbecauseitsrelevancetotheselfisnotperceivedorctheexperiencecanbedeniedsymbolizationordistortedbecauseitisinconsistentwiththestructureoftheselfCoreFeaturesAsRogers1959putitpsychotherapyisthereleasingofanalreadyexistingcapacityinapotentiallycompetentindividualnottheexpertmanipulationofamoreorlesspassivepersonalityp221ThethreetherapistcharacteristicsthatprecipitateallofthisareaaccurateempathicunderstandingbunconditionalpositiveregardandcgenuinenessorcongruenceThesethreevariableswerediscussedbrieflyinChapter11whereitwasobservedthatresearchevidencedoesnotaccordthemasmuchpowerasdidRogersEmpathyTheempathictherapistconveysakindofsensitivitytotheneedsfeelingsandcircumstancesoftheclientExceptionallyempathictherapistscanassumetheattitudesofclientsandasitwereclimbbehindtheireyeballsandseetheworldastheydoUnconditionalPositiveRegardUnconditionalpositiveregardisnothingmoreandnothinglessthanarespectfortheclientasahumanbeingThetherapistmustlayasideallpreconceivednotionsandbeabletocareabouttheclientbeacceptingandaboveallconveythathereissomeonewhohasfaithandtrustintheclientsabilityandstrengthtoachievethatinnerpotentialThesequalitiescoupledwithacompletelackofevaluativejudgmentsonthepartofthetherapistwillgoalongwaytowardcreatinganatmosphereinwhichtheclientisfreetogiveup2
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