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Canada (158,372)
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ADMS 1000 (298)
Chapter 5

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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 1000
Indira Somwaru

Chapter 5 – Labour Context The Labour Environment and Canadian Society -More diverse than other societies Distinguishing Work and Employment -Employment is a form of work in which a person is dependent upon, and mostly, subservient, to an “employer” - Employment Contract Sets out specific rules, obligations and rights applicable to the employer and employee and is usually enforceable in a court of law (Governs employment relationship) -At core of employment relationship there is an exchange: employee sells labour in exchange for compensation (wages,) - Employment is just one way work can be done, there are people who are self-employed and are independent contractors, they run their own business and are not “employed” -Partners- part owners who sale their labour - Unpaid workers such as Interns and volunteers are not considered employed - Canadian government has enacted Legislation to regulate employment What is an employee? - What distinguishes an “employee” from an “independent contractor?” ***Does the person look like they are in the business for themselves or someone else -Degree of control: Independent contractor can usually determine the hours they work -Degree of Economic Risk: IC assumes the risk of nonpayment of bills by, or loss of , customers as well as the potential benefit of profit -Degree to which the worker performs an essential service for an organization: A person who performs an integral part for an organization is more likely to be seen as a worker -Degree to which the organization provide the necessary tools: IC is more likely to own his own tools while an employee borrows the companies From Standard to non-standard employment relationships Standard employment relationship (SER)- regular, full-time hours at a single employer, spanning an entire working career -golden age for SER was 1930s-1980s -government regulations guided relationship (such as compensation benefits) 1 Non Standard employment(NSE)-less stable, part time, temporary or variable working hours, lower pat, fewer employer-provided benefits, shorter job tenure and no access to collective bargaining -2009, 32% of Canadian workforce was NSE, this means that when graduating university we will be less likely to find a stable job -Workers under NSE are often described as Vulnerable or precarious workers- they live on the cusp of poverty because they are scared that their source of income is on the verge of disappearing Perspectives on work and government policy - There are a variety of perspectives on the matter such as: the role of effectiveness of markets, the role of bargaining power in the employment relationship, the role of management, and the human resources function in particular; and the role of unions and collective bargaining -4 debates in particular are huge about the governance of work in Canada 1. Neoclassical perspectives -argues “competitive markets” as the best mean of organizing complex economies -forces of supply and demand will guide the market “invisible hand of the market” (limited gov’t intervention) - Adam Smith-keep taxes low and regulation (min wage laws will harm economy) 2. Managerial perspective - S
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