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York University
Administrative Studies
ADMS 1000
Keith Lehrer

Habiba Abudu 212234670 3/15/2014 Library Research Exercise Question and Second Question The first question I chose was question 7.4, which is “What are the Cultural Effects of Globalization?” My enhanced or more developed secondary question is “How has the exchange of regional foods influence local modes of production?” The question was chosen because I like food and I had a hard time finding enthusiasm in doing other aspects of globalization such as trade, clothing etc. Since food was a fascinating topic for myself, obviously that would give me more momentum in re-searching and developing key words for the assignment. Also, food varies from region to region and thus changes in each area may bare slight nuances. Key words used in the database during my research phase were “food, trade, globalization and local”. As a result of free-trade and neo- liberalism all readings shared common themes of standardization and appealing to an expanded market. As a result, there were changes in traditional modes of production in order to produce a standard product. There were ancillary compromises as a result such a loss of community or even a reduction in quality. There are instances in some readings in which individuals would try to subvert these new modes of production. Consequently, reminding me of the Marxist’s theory of capitalism. Ethnographic Research Elisha P. Renne wrote the article entitled “Mass Producing Food Traditions for West Africans Abroad”. She is apart of the Department of Anthropology at the University of Michigan. Renne’s extensive knowledge of Nigerian cuisine is attributed to the research she conducted in the Niger Delta throughout 1987-2004. She also went to Northern Nigeria during 1994-1996 (2007:624). Church is an integral part of West African culture and Renne notices that by stating, “food is an important part of church worship” (2007:617). To further her understanding on the importance of local foods in a new environment she attended Cherubim and Seraphim church (originally started as an independent church in Nigeria) in New York, Chicago, and Detroit. (2007: 617). While attending the church, Renne asks members about which African food stores they frequent, modes of preparation of food amongst other things. The questions Renne could be trying to answer in her article is what are the differences for the West African diaspora in terms of acquiring traditional food items as well as how is the tradition of preparation changed or maintained with the introduction of technology? She supplemented her ethnographic study with grocery store items found in West African markets as well as referencing other studies (2007:617). Nana Okura Gagné who wrote “Eating Local in a U.S. city: Reconstructing “community” – a third place – in a neoliberal economy” conducted fieldwork in 2003 (as well as follow up visits in 2005 and 2010) with a farmer’s market in Washington, D.C called “The Farmer’s Basket Market” (2011: 282). Gagné conducted interviews with various farming personnel, customers, organizers and volunteers (2011:282). A question Gagné attempts toanswer is how farmers use “liberal-open-mindedness” to subvert neo- liberalism during the exchange of farmer’s produce? Another question could be what are the challenges associated with an alternative market within the framework of a pre- dominantly neo-liberalism liberal market? Cristina Grasseni wrote “Re-inventing food:Alpine cheese in the age of global heritage.” Fieldwork began in 1998 with two years of participant observation in the production of alpage cheese. This study would eventually extend into including three types of regional cheeses. She conducted interviews with various personnel in the local cheese industry such as cheese makers and local administrators. Her later years comprised of collaborative research with the Ecomuseum of Valtaleggio. Her questions would address the transformation of cheese production throughout the years as well as the problems associated with changes in modes of production. The book entitled “Fast Food/Slow Food The Cultural Economy of the Global Food System” involves persons from all walks to life that submit individual essays regarding changes in modes of production for food. The food examples used in the book ranges from Tacos in Mexico to fast food in Laos. The contributors had various ways of conducting fieldwork such as living in the region for the time and trying the food. Richard Wilk, the professor of Anthropology from Indiana University appears to be the primary consultant for many of these essays. The recurring themes in these ess
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