Chapter 3 Equity and Diversity in Human Resources
1. Which of the following statements best describes employment equity?
A. It impacts all aspects of the employment relationship.
B. It is referred to as “affirmative action” in provincial legislation.
C. It is an out-dated term, which has been replaced by “diversity management.”
D. It has been declining in importance in recent years.
2. Organization Z is about to undertake an organization-wide process of ensuring equitable representation in
terms of designated groups, including an analysis and redressing of past discriminations. Organization B is
undertaking which of the following?
A. affirmative action policy implementation
B. employment equity policy implementation
C. pay equity policy implementation
D. an employment systems review
3. Aboriginals face major employment barriers, which may be compounded by which of the following?
A. language and cultural barriers
C. reluctance to leave the area in which they grew up
D. negative past employment experience
4. Green Grass Hospital pays its hallway painters/technicians nearly twice the hourly rate that it pays the nurses.
This fact is likely to cause further investigation in a pay equity program implementation under which of the
A. if the nurses have more seniority
B. if the painters have more training
C. if the nurses are predominately women and the painters are predominantly men
D. if the painters’union becomes involved in the process
5. What is the most important thing an organization can do if it wants to retain women?
A. implement policies that focus on the family
B. implement employment equity policies
C. implement pay equity policies
D. implement mentoring
6. As a result of the Supreme Court of Canada ruling regarding the right to bargain collectively and to strike, governments can weaken the collective bargaining process through which of the following?
A. limiting salary increases
B. imposing compulsory layoffs
C. dismissing union leaders
D. upholding discrimination complaints
7. Which of the following groups is most likely to view the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms as a
C. designated groups in general
D. religious groups
8. If a religious organization insists on hiring a member from its own faith, it is probably safe to do so legally, if
it claims which of the following legal defences?
A. adverse impact
B. adverse effect
C. reasonable accommodation
D. bona fide occupation qualification
9. Which of the following is a possible outcome of a human rights complaint filed by an individual?
A. It is deemed as trivial by the CHRC and refused.
B. A settlement may be arranged, even if the complaint is unsubstantiated.
C. The Equal Rights Compliance Agency (ERCA) may become involved.
D. It can be waitlisted for years depending on how busy the CHRC is.
10. Which of the following statements best describes the enforcement of provincial human rights laws?
A. Provincial laws are enforced in a similar manner except there is no court prosecution permitted.
B. Provincially regulated employers tend to be larger and more sophisticated.
C. HR professionals in provincially regulated firms tend to be very knowledgeable about human rights
D. Independent boards of inquiry have similar powers as a federal tribunal.
11. How is the Canadian Human Rights Act typically enforced?
A. by specially designated RCMP officers
B. through complaints from individuals
C. by specially designated CSIS agents
D. by human rights tribunals
12. Employers that pay men and women performing the same job a different salary are violating the Pay Equity
Act only if the differences are based on which of the following?
B. merit C. gender
D. incentive plans
13. What is the difference between pay equity and pay equality?
A. Equity is equal pay for work of comparable worth; equality is equal pay for equal work.
B. Equality is equal pay for work of comparable worth; equity is equal pay for equal work.
C. Equity is about fair pay for individual women employees; pay equality is required of all federally regulated
D. Equality is about fair pay for entire occupations; equity is required by law in every jurisdiction in Canada.
14. Which of the following groups would NOT fall under the broad definition of a designated group?
A. individuals who are 40 years of age or older
B. visible minorities
D. disabled persons
15. Which of the following is the most serious possible occurrence if an HR professional was dishonest in a
human rights investigation?
A. The HR professional could be imprisoned.
B. The organization could be fined up to $50,000.
C. The HRPA would remove certification, or disallow future certification.
D. There could be a major investigation of the organization and the HR professional.
16. Which of the following is NOT true of the Employment Equity Act (1995)?
A. Employers that have more than 100 employees must implement employment equity.
B. Organizations with employment equity must prepare an annual report on its data and activities relating to
C. All Canadian organizations must have some form of employment equity program.
D. Organizations with employment equity programs must give their employees questionnaires to indicate
whether they belong to a designated group.
17. What is the law that requires large firms bidding on federal government contracts worth $200,000 or more
to have an employment equity plan?
A. the Canada Labour Code
B. the Canadian Human Rights Act
C. the Abella Commission
D. the Federal Contractors Program
18. What is the first step in the employment equity implementation process?
A. data collection and analysis
B. establishment of a workplan
C. senior management commitment D. employment systems review
19. What are the six main steps to developing an employment equity program?
A. senior management commitment; data collection/analysis; establish a workplan; HR systems review;
B. senior management commitment; HR systems review; data collection/analysis; establish a workplan;
implementation; follow up
C. senior management commitment; data collection/analysis; establish a workplan; implementation; follow up;
monitoring and evaluation
D. senior management commitment; data collection/analysis; employment systems review; workplan;
implementation; follow-up with monitor and revision
20. Which of the following terms refers to a snapshot of the organization that includes where members of
designated groups are employed, their salaries, and their status?
A. flow data
C. stock data
D. profile data
21. Which of the following is an important tool in employment equity planning?
A. employment systems review
B. internal workforce profile
C. family-friendly policy
D. external workforce profile
22. Data collection for employment equity purposes involves which of the following?
A. surveys of supervisors
B. a mandatory self-identification process
C. surveys of family members
D. a voluntary self-identification process
23. Which of the following is the best example of how an organization’s leadership can demonstrate its
commitment to an employment equity plan?
A. allowing employees to fill out the employment equity survey on company time
B. offering a full explanation of the employment equity policy to top managers
C. offering a guarantee of confidentiality
D. publicly describing the organization’s commitment to employment equity
24. Which of the following people would be the best choice for an organizational employment equity
A. Bill has belonged to the organization for 15 years, beginning on the shop floor, and is now a manager. He is
well known and respected within the organization. Bill’s sister, who lives with him, is disabled and uses a
wheelchair. B. Sandeep is a member of a designated group, is new to the organization, and works in management. He is an
active member of his religious group.
C. Candy is a member of designated group and has been with the organization for 25 years as a telephone
receptionist. She knows everyone and is very popular due to her friendliness and great memory.
D. Antonia, who has been with the organization for 15 years, is very interested in becoming the employment
equity representative because she is very organized and wants an opportunity to demonstrate this to
management so she can be considered for a promotion.
25. Which of the following presents the most important roadblock to successful administration of a self-
A. training and development
B. terms that are not clearly defined, such as “Aboriginal” and “racial minority”
C. not understanding the form
D. a sense of “futility” expressed by members of designated groups in organizations where bias and racism are
26. A large accounting firm has only 35 percent female UFE-certified accountants on staff. Women make up
approximately 50 percent of the population and UFE-certified women make up approximately 15 percent of the
labour force. Which of the following best describes this situation for women at this large accounting firm?
A. They are underrepresented.
B. They are concentrated.
C. They are underutilized.
D. They require reasonable accommodation.
27. Targeted recruitment to correct past discrimination is an example of which of the following?
A. reasonable accommodation
B. a special measure
C. an employment equity goal
D. a workplan
28. Implementing a flexible work schedule is an example of which of the following?
A. reasonable accommodation
B. a special measure
C. an employment equity goal
D. a workplan
29. Phil’s Antique Superstore is hiring ten new customer service agents. All three of Phil's stores are housed in
historic landmark buildings that are “heritage” sites and do not have wheelchair ramp access. This is an example
of which of the following?
A. a systemic barrier
B. the need for special measures
C. lack of reasonable accommodation
D. the duty to accommodate 30. “Phil’s Antique Superstore” is hiring ten new customer service agents. All three of Phil’s stores are housed
in historic landmark buildings that are “heritage” sites and do not have wheelchair ramp access. Phil, the
owner, has indicated that city bylaws will not allow him to renovate and add a wheelchair ramp to his buildings
because of their heritage status. This fact makes the ability to go up stairs which of the following?
A. an undue hardship
B. a reasonable accommodation
C. a bona fide occupational qualification to work at Phil’s
D. a system barrier to working at Phil’s
31. An organization’s workforce is representative in which of the following situations?
A. when it reflects the demographic composition of the external workforce
B. when numerical goals have been established
C. when it reflects an improvement from the previous year’s results
D. when men and women are employed in equal numbers
32. Which of the following is essential for an employer to determine whether goals are being attained and
problems resolved, and whether strategies have been effective?
C. an employment systems review
D. establishing goals and timetables
33. Which of the following is NOT an example of sexual harassment?
A. paying a man more than a woman for doing the same job
B. promoting a female employee after she agrees to an after-work date
C. permitting male employees to tell sexist jokes that female staff find offensive
D. allowing a customer to demand sexual favours from an employee
34. An effective sexual harassment policy includes all of the following EXCEPT which one?
A. a comprehensive, well-publicized, organization-wide policy on sexual harassment
B. a formal complaint procedure that spells out the methods used to investigate charges
C. emphasis on follow-up and discipline for supported charges
D. a policy to dismiss any employee accused of sexual harassment
35. The concepts of harassment in the workplace are being broadened to include which one of the following?
A. compensation decisions
B. psychological harassment such as bullying
D. evaluation and monitoring
36. Organization Z is planning a formal process of examining its workforce in terms of religion, personality,
lifestyle, and education. The company plans to gain a strategic advantage by harnessing the differences that exist within the organization. Organization Z is planning to do which of the following?
A. implement an employment equity program
B. implement a pay equity program
C. initiate a cultural assessment
D. employ diversity management
37. Which of the following is an important reason behind implementing a diversity initiative?
A. to expand the organization’s global perspective
B. to avoid human rights complaints
C. to capitalize on emerging markets in third world countries
D. to comply with Canadian legal requirements
38. Which of the following is NOT recommended as a strategy for creating an environment in which diversity
A. ensuring the initiative is seen as an important human resource program
B. providing diversity training
C. reviewing policies and practices
D. monitoring progress and providing qualitative and quantitative evidence of change
39. Which of the following summarizes the primary business reasons for diversity management?
A. acting in accordance with CHRA legislation; better utilization of talent; better teamwork; better marketplace
understanding; better leadership
B. enhanced creativity; better synergy; better utilization of talent; better leadership; better teamwork
C. acting in accordance with CHRA legislation; better utilization of talent; better leadership; better work ethic;
better marketplace understanding
D. better utilization of talent; better marketplace understanding; enhanced creativity; better leadership; better
40. Which of the following organizational situations best represents the principle of the duty to accommodate?
A. making renovations so that the building has wheelchair access, even if it is through a rear-entrance loading
B. making washrooms equipped with lower mirrors and faucets, and wider doors