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ADMS 3960 (12)
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ADMS 3960 International Business Textbook Notes

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Department
Administrative Studies
Course
ADMS 3960
Professor
Jung- Chin Shen
Semester
Fall

Description
-global superstar system, creating access to a greater supply of low-cost labour -in sports where stars earn more than other professionals in sports -profits have disproportionately gone to the top execs -the challenge is to maximize the gains from globalization while minimizing the costs by the losers Personal Stress -some are stressed from social status suffers, and those who fear the loss of their jobs Why Companies Engage in IB Expanding Sales -higher sales create value only if the costs of making the add’l sales don’t increase disproportionately -increased sales are a major motive for expanding into int’l markets Acquiring Resources -distributors seek out products from foreign countries because domestic supplies are inadequate -they look for anything that will create a competitive advantage, by improving the quality of their product of by differentiating it Reducing Risk -operating in countries with diff business cycles can minimize swings in sales -by obtaining products domestically and internationally,companies can soften the impact of price swings Modes of Operations in IB Merchandise Imports and Exports Merchandise imports- goods brought into a country Merchandise exports- tangible goods sent out of a country Service Imports and Exports Service import-recipient and payer of payment Service export- provider and receiver of payment -service exports take many forms: Tourism and Transportationairlines, shipping companies, travel agencies, hotels Service Performance performance of those services Turnkey operations- construction projects done under contract &transferred to owners when completed Management contracts- one company provides personnel to perform management fnctions for another Asset useLicensing agreements-when a company allows another to use its assets Royalties- earnings that are received Franchising- when one party allows another to use a trademark as an asset of the franchisee’s business Investments -dividends and interest paid represent the use of assets Direct InvestmentFDI- investor takes a controlling interest in a foreign company Joint venture- when 2+ companies share ownership of an FDI Portfolio InvestmentDef’n- financial interest in another entity -is either through stock in a company, or loans to a company in bonds, bills, or notes
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