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Jan 23:25- How do development and globalization influence f..
Jan 23:25- How do development and globalization influence food security?.pdf

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York University
ANTH 1120
David Murray

23 January - 29 January Jan 23/25: How do development and globalization influence food security? Readings: 1) CA pp. 59-63 (Why Don’t Poor Countries Modernize and Develop in the Same Way as Wealthier Countries?) • .p59 • Question 2.3 Why dont poor countries modernize and develop in the same way as wealthier countrines? Industrial revolution transformed western Europe and north America as went from farmers to • labourers • Not a matter of choice, people began to sell their labour, not because wage labour offered better life ,but because they no longer posses land on which to secure livelihood • P.60 • The ability of jobs was subject to the whims of the market and the rise and fall in the demand for products • As long as there was a demand for products, jobs were secure, when demands slacked, people were thrown off work • The rate of economic growth and technological advancements were astounding, resulting in a dramatic improvement in the standard of living • Western countries got increased wealth whereas third world often saw their standard of living decline as their courtliness fell under the influence of european powers • Push towards economic development ( the assumption that non industrial countries of the world were backward and needed to develop / westernize) • An unprecedented will to know everything about the third world flourished and the third world witnessed a massive landing of experts, each in charge of investigating, measuring and tearing about every aspect of third world societies • Social life as a technical problem that could be entrusted to developmental professionals, consisting largely of economists and agricultural experts allegedly qualified for the task • Idea of economic development emerged on three key assumptions: • Economic growth and development is the solution to national as well as global problems • Global economic integration will continue to solve global ecological and social problems • Foreign assistance to underdeveloped countries will make things better • Thus, countries that wished to develop sought foreign loans and investments to create and industrial infrastructure • Loans would allow for underdeveloped countries to produce things that developed countries didnt produce themselves--cash crops, cotton, sugar, tobacco, coffee,lumber, etc • One major western institution that was to promote economic development was the world bank • P.61 • Their task was to plan for the economic reconstruction of countries devastated by ww2 and develop a post war plan for worldwide economic and monetary stability • Donate funds as loans and without any regard to political affairs or noneconomic factors • Initial loans were to european nations but soon to india, brazil, indonesia, • In spit of foreign loans to underdeveloped courtliness, many argue that they not only increased poverty, but lead to rampant environmental devastation • P.62 - the case of brazil • Brazil has built damns, roads, factories and industries, and modernized agriculture becoming world leader in export of crops • Brazil became a model or modern industrialization; factors created jobs and people flocked to the cities for emolument as brazil cities began to rival any in the west • To pay back its debt, brazil needed to earn foreign income • Landowners were encouraged to expand the production of crops that could be sold for money, especially in NA and Europe • Brazilian farmers turned to crops with other uses like coffee or coca • To grow more they needed modern farming techniques and lots of land • Brazil did increase production of some crops but because poor brazilians could not pay as much as relatively wealthy NA and europeans, most was exported • In 80s couldn't keep up loans so had to reduce government spending on public education, welfare, housing and health --resulting in greater hardships for the poorest portion of the population • 40% of brazil still living in poverty • 81 & 83 too much migration and had to burn forest to survive and making land un cultivatable for years • P.63 • Life threatening diseases developed and infant mortality • Whether the price of progress through industrialization must be increased poverty, hunger and environmental devastation is an open question • Labourer, merchant/business person, professional in en of the wealthy country of the world-- materially better off than counter part but health risks bc environmental damage • Labourer or small farmer in one of poorer countries, less better off that centuries ago 2) Luber, George E. 2005. “Globalization, Dietary Change, and ‘Second Hair’ Illness in Two Mesoamerican Cultures.” In Globalization, Health, and the Environment: An Integrated Perspective. Greg Guest, ed. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.:133-156. • P.133 - Globalization, Dietary Change, and ‘Second Hair’ Illness in Two Mesoamerican Cultures. • Global market forces have been affecting the health of Native Americans over five centuries – beginning with the conquest of Mexico. This subsidence farmers from Mexico’s Sierra have always been at the periphery of the • global economy • While astute marketeers, their contributions have hostilely centred on their supply of atonal labor for coastal fincas, or plantations, and for large scale government projects and their production of coffee and sugarcane for the export market • The move toward a cash based local economy has hastened in recent years due to increased population pressure in the land scarce highlands the input of cash from relatives working in the united states • Not surprisingly, these shifts in the local economy, from subsistence agriculture to cash cropping and wage labour, have produced significant agriculture to cash cropping and wage labour, have produce significant changes in the traditional lifestyle and transformed the epidemiological profile of these groups. • Two ethnomedical syndromes, the tessellate mayan chasmal tsots and the mixe majts bay, which are regional variations of second hair illness found in several mesoamerican cultures • P.134 • Data supporting the proposition that chalmal tsots and majts baajy both represent ethnomedical diagnoses of protein-energy malnutrition, a potentially deadily form of malnutrition of which kwashiorkor and marasmus are extreme manifestations, and I hypothesize that the high prevalence of this illness in one of the study communities is the result of the residents increased participation in the gobal economy and the subsequent commoditization of the local diet • Second hair - cha’lam tsots is a tzeltal mayan ethnomedical syndrome identified by the residence of short, spiny hairs growing close to the scalp, under the normal layer of hair (causing physical trauma)---hair loss, diarrheic, fever, edema, loss of appetite and general debility are its primary signs and symptoms • The mixs majts baajy, two head hairs, primarily afflicts infants and its marked by diarrhea, anemia, a swollen body, puffed cheeks and numerous fine shining hairs growing on the head • P.135 • These two groups live in similar highland ecological settings, practice slash and burn (swidden) corn bean squash agriculture, and have similar levels of integration into the national economy • The fat that this illness concept exists in linguistically distinct cultural groups points to the possibility that this concept crosses local boundaries and is shared by other groups in the mesoamerican culture - area • Explanatory Models of Second Hair Illness • Explanatory model methodology: set of beliefs or understandings of specific illnesses that pertain to any or all of five domains: attributed aetiology; diagnosis and typical onset; course, or evolution; prognosis, or predicted outcome; and healing strategy (used in cross cultural comparison of illness concepts) • P.136 The Tzeltal Mayan Cha’lam Tsots • • 27,000 ppl, 21 villages • Economy is subsistence based, relying on corn, bean, and squash milpa agriculture, with seasonal plantation labor and coffee growing becoming increasingly important • Seen dramatic socioeconomic and political changes over the last few decades • Interviews with 7 traditional healers and 18 laypersons in the municipality of Tenejapa Knowledge of illness is widespread as most people experience or know people with illness • • Attributed Etiology • Tzeltal consider cha’lam tsots to be closely associated with diarrheal disease and ascribe to it a naturalistic etiology--an illness that has a natural causative agent • Children can contract it through neglect of young and inexperienced mothers • First, cha’lam tsots can be caused by a blow to a childs head ( fall while learning how to walk) or being left out in the sun too long (burning the head and causing it to grow differently and fall out) • P.137 • The illness afflicts infants of the wearing age (12-18 months) and children during the dry months of the year, from March through early June • Diagnosis and Typical Onset • The central sign for cha’lam tots is the appearance of short, delicate, discoloured hair on the head of the infant, under the normal layer • P.138 • Loss of appetite, mild diarrhoea, edema, cough, fever, mild alopecia, and reddish coloured rash on the head • Course of the illness • More diarrhea, continued weight loss, increased edema (face to arms), gastrointestinal and respiratory infections more sever, night fevers, severe alopecia, loss of hair • Prognosis • Without treatment, death • Healing strategy • As the illness has a naturalistic etiology, treatment is plant based, does not involve spiritual elements and can be administer by a specialist healer or a layperson with specific knowledge of treatment Healer obtains medical plant to be used in treatment - chimaphila maculate • • P.139 • Round plants, mix with water and applied cold to the scalp to the sufferer once a day for three days (head kept wrapped in cloth for duration of treatment )---high success rates • The mixie majts baajy • Indent people with strong shared sense of identity Practice substance agriculture, focusing primarily on corn, beans, squash and potatoes, • have been growing coffee and citrus for the export economy • Undergone dramatic changes in social and economic life, due to the influence of out migration to mexico city and united states • Rarer here since 1970s • Attributed etiology • Older specialists (50+) typically reported that majts baajy is a particular manifestation of fright illnesses • P.140 • One becomes asustado after a freighting experience that startles the blood an heart or dislodges one of the souls that a person accrues during ones life time • The loss of a soul is akin to loosing part of ones life force, and children are especially vulnerable • Gusto is brought about through frightening dreams that cause sudden movements in the childs arms and legs--weakening the body and rendering it susceptible to bad airs, which can lead to a range of illnesses, especially majts baajy • From malnutrition • Typical sufferer is form 12-18 months old, although children up to age 6-7 are susceptible • Diagnosis and typical onset • Contingent on the presence of short, delicate, hairs appearing first on the back of neck then through whole head • Lighter the hair, more seer the illness • Preliminary signs are weight loss, facial edema, diarrhea, fever, sleeplessness and irritability--sunken eyes and anemic complexion were also reported • Course of the illness • Illness is first signalled by the spread of the hairs down the patents spine to the lower back and over the head Hairs spread, child deteriorates, diarrhea becomes more severe; weight loss quickens, • edema spreads from face to extremities; hair loss increasingly and fever become more common • Child becomes lethargic and irritable as appetite disappears • Prognosis • Without treatment would too die • P. 141 • Healing strategy • Neck and back are rubbed with lard and the affected area is shaved and cleaned with alcohol • The children the given dried fish, beef, pork and or greasy meat if available • The biomedical and epidemiological perspective of second hair illness • Use of the EM methodology was intended to develop avenues for exploration in the search for etiologic agents, risk factors and biomedical equivalence • Hypothesis: the illnesses most resemble several forms of protein energy malnutrition (which methodology reflect) • Protein energy malnutrition - the spectrum of macronurtrient deficiency syndromes cause by an inadequate dietary intake of proteins and calories • P.142 • Most common victims are children • Two basic types of PEM: marasmus (cause by decreased energy in relative to energy expenditure and typically develops over long period---reduced body fat, lean tissue-- starvation) and kwashiorkor (an inadequate nutritional support and in the presence of infection --poor growth, decreased fat, muscle wearing, thin breakable hair, edema OR physiological stress of an infection that induces deleterious metabolic cascade in malnourished children) • Diagnosis of PEM is based on low body weight for height and on measures of subcutaneous fat and muscle P.143 • • Sampling and methodology • Sampled four villages in tezeltal mayan and identified 19 cases (7 males, 12 females) 35 hundred people---5.4 cases per 1000 • Findings • Cha’lam is PEM (confirmed hypothesis) P.144-p.145 • • Cha’lam tsots and majts baajy are, from a biomedical standpoint, the same disease • The political ecological roots of second hair illness • Cha’lam tsots so prevalent vs majts baajy so rare • Interviewed local elders and municipal leaders to gain insights into some of the important changes over 30 year The failure of public health projects in chiapas; and the influence of dietary decollation, • fueled by global market forces on the maya diet in chiapas are the two main reasons for the difference in prevalence • Why public health projects work in Oaxaca and fail in chiapas • P.146 • Much of the differences between the mixie and tezeltal health profiles can be attributed to the local success of a few a health promotion and development projects Mixie have received, and have been receptive to , a number of development and public • health projects that have improved basic sanitation and hygiene levels in the mixie communities • 1972 a mission hospital directed their efforts to improving hygiene, providing safe drinking water and educating mothers on proper infant nutrition • Building roads into the mixie highlands during the early 70s brought a dramatic change in mixie health as it established medical posts in villages with clinics that staffed full time nurses, provided basic health care and carried own vaccination programs • Clinics to provide bulk of western medical care, carrying out nutritional screenings, prenatal clinics, workshops, family planning, pharmacy and operating table for emergencies • Promoted health, sanitation and child nutrition in the highland • P.147 Organizations supplying dairy and meats to household without cost and how to cook with • them • The mixie diet has been transformed and this transformation has improved their nutritional status • High levels of parasitism and poor sanitary conditions in chiapas lead to gastriointestrial disease and respiratory infections • Malnutrition is also a serious problem, especially with tezeltal and Tzotzil communities P.148 • • 1950s has 13 health posts and clincs and trained local health promoters basic western medical techniques • The tezeltal diet sufferers from a lack of quality proteins • New principal weapon against malnutrition is a powdered supplement called polvo de papilla--providing extra protein, vitamins and minerals to weaning age children in easy to use powdered formula Nothing works bc in tenejapa lack of willingness of the program participants to utilize the • nutritional supplements • Give to livestock to fatten up and sell for more, than to give to children • P.148 • Fattened livestock could provide extra money to the household economy and thus help in feeding the whole family • Topographical factors also play a role in the differences in the utilization and success of health promotion projects between mixie and tezeltal • Mixie = highland • Tezeltal = better soil conditions • The compact settlement patten of the mixie has significance for the efficacy of public health interventions, as the majority of the populace is easy to reach and assemble • Clean running water, sewage, and draining systems are also cheaper and easier to provide and maintain in concentrated populations, as is medical care • In totontepec, each agency is visited weekly by clinic doctor who is able to see more patients because there is no need to travel long distances to visit individual homestead-- tenejapa have to walk several miles to see a doctor, a task made ever more difficult when sick • Globalization, dietary delocalization and the junk food diet • Nothing weakens an immune system and overall health as efficiently as malnutrition, especially if families are, for economic reasons, substituting cheap fat an starch for more expensive proteins and fresh vegetables • Chiapas have increased importance of migration, seasonal wage labor and the production of commodity crops suc as coffee and sugarcane---significantly impacting tezeltal economic and social life • P. 150 • Among the facets of life most affected by this shift toward irrigation into the global monetized economy has been the traditional diet Increased importance of export cash crops such as coffee and sugar cane leafs to • increased participation in the market economy • Farmers exchange stable low cost, low productivity agricultural system for a highcost, high productivity system which their own returns continuously decrease as a result of unequal exchange in the market • Several farmed in tenejapa have begun to leave the beans on the plant due to the decreased price of raw coffee and high cost of labour • Ecological standpoint, cash cropping reduces ecosystem diversity and the reduction of fallow periods that accompanies cash cropping is detrimental to the soil quality • Loss of diversity affects availability of wild uncultivated food, which are an important nutritional resource for substance agriculturalists, especially at the end of the agricultural cycle during famine • Most important, the shift away from subsistence production to cash cropping leads to the increased dependance on purchased foods--poorer dietary quality and ultimately lowered nutritional status • Dietary delocalization refers to the process in which there is an increase in the importance of foods from outside the region in local diet • While food commoditization and the dietary delocalization are associated with improved levels of nutrition in industrial nations, it has negative effects in developing countries • As integration into the monetized economy increases, milpa production decreases and diets shift away from a base in local produce to one in commerc
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